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NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS

WELCOME TO THE WEBSITE THAT COVERS ACTIVITIES AT AGONA NSABA, ONE OF THE 17 ORIGINAL FOUNDERS OF GHANA.

THIS WEBSITE PROVIDES INFORMATION ABOUT COMMUNITY PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES CONCERNING AGONA NSABA, AND AGONA AREA OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA.

EMAIL ADDRESSES OF MANAGER OF WEBSITE: kwabenaasomanin@hotmail.com; kwabenaanaman@gmail.com

WELCOME TO AGONA NSABA, THE CAPITAL OF THE AGONA EAST ELECTORAL CONSTITUENCY, ONE OF THE 275 CONSTITUENCIES IN GHANA.

THE AGONA EAST IS THE ONLY CONSTITUENCY IN GHANA THAT HAS CORRECTLY CHOSEN THE WINNER OF EVERY PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, EVERY ELECTION FOR PRIME MINISTER, AND EVERY REFERENDUM SINCE THE FIRST NATIONAL ELECTION ON 8 FEBRUARY 1951.

EIGHTEEN NATIONAL ELECTIONS AND REFERENDA HAVE BEEN HELD IN GHANA, IN 1951, 1954, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1969, 1978, 1979, 1992 (TWO INCLUDING ONE REFERENDUM), 1996, 2000 (TWO ROUNDS), 2004, 2008 (TWO ROUNDS), 2012 AND 2016.

AGONA EAST VOTERS HAVE CHOSEN THE EXACT WINNER IN EACH NATIONAL ELECTION INCLUDING THE TWO RUN-OFF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS AND THREE REFERENDA.

THE PEOPLE IN THE CONSTITUENCY THEREFORE REPRESENT A NEAR-PERFECT CASE OF SWING VOTERS WHO GENERALLY DECIDE THE OUTCOMES OF NATIONAL ELECTIONS IN GHANA IN THE MODERN ERA.

BRIEF HISTORY OF AGONA NSABA WITHIN THE POLITICAL ECONOMY CONTEXT OF GHANA

AGONA NSABA CELEBRATES ITS 520 YEARS OF ITS ESTABLISHMENT AS A HUMAN SETTLEMENT AROUND 1500 AD BY AKAN MIGRANTS, 325 YEARS AS AN AGONA PARAMOUNTCY SEAT TOWN SINCE 1693 AD AND 174 YEARS AS A FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE ORIGINAL GOLD COAST COLONY IN 1844 AD.

THE TOWN ALSO CELEBRATES 128 YEARS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FIRST CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1890 AD AFTER ACQUISITION OF LAND BY SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES IN THE TOWN IN 1884 AD, AND 124 YEARS OF WESTERN FORMAL EDUCATION SINCE 1894 AD.

THE HISTORICAL DATES ARE ESTABLISHED BASED ON INFORMATION FROM GHANAIAN, BRITISH, DANISH, DUTCH, GERMAN, PORTUGUESE AND SWISS ARCHIVES.

FOR EXAMPLE, THE DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT OF AGONA NSABA AROUND 1500 AD IS BASED ON SEVERAL SOURCES. AS NOTED BY KEA (1982), ENGLISH MERCHANTS VISITED THE AGONA CITY STATE AS FAR BACK AS MID-16TH CENTURY (1540 AD TO 1560 AD).

BASED ON THE DUTCH MAP OF THE GOLD COAST PRODUCED IN 1629 BY HANS PROPHEET WHO WAS BASED AT FORT AMSTERDAM, AGONA WAS A POWERFUL STATE AT THE TIME (ANQUANDAH, 2006; KEA, 1982).

THIS DUTCH MAP OF 1629 SHOWED THAT AGONA WAS ONE OF THE SIX MAIN STATES ALONG THE GOLD COAST AND ITS IMMEDIATE HINTERLAND. THIS RECORD IS CONFIRMED BY ANOTHER MAP IN 1729 DEVELOPED BY ANVILLE.

AGONA NSABA WAS ALSO A KNOWN HUMAN SETTLEMENT DURING THE 1615 AND 1636 MAJOR EARTHQUAKES IN PRESENT DAY GHANA WHICH DESTROYED SOME TOWNS INCLUDING PARTS OF ACCRA AND AXIM.

INFORMATION FROM SWISS-GERMAN ARCHIVES OBTAINED FROM BASEL MISSION HEADQUARTERS IN BASEL, SWITZERLAND PROVIDE CONSIDERABLE INFORMATION ON AGONA NSABA FROM 1884 TO 1935.

THIS INFORMATION STARTS FROM THE ACQUISITION OF 37 ACRES OF LAND AT NSABA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MISSIONARY CENTRE BY THE BASEL EVANGELICAL CHURCH IN 1884 TO THE EXPULSION OF ALL CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES OF GERMAN DESCENT AND THEIR CHILDREN FROM NSABA IN 1935 BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT.

THIS INFORMATION IS ALSO SUPPORTED BY ARCHIVAL INFORMATION FROM GERMAN SOURCES ESPECIALLY FROM THE EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF GERMANY.

BASED ON INFORMATION FROM BRITISH GOVERNMENT ARCHIVES, AGONA NSABA WAS ONE OF THE 17 ORIGINAL FOUNDING TRADITIONAL STATES OF THE GOLD COAST COLONY, THE PRECURSOR STATE OF THE MODERN REPUBLIC OF GHANA.

NANA YAW DUODU, FROM AGONA NSABA, THE THEN OMANHENE OF THE AGONA TRADITIONAL AREA, WAS ONE OF THE 17 PARAMOUNT CHIEFS WHO SIGNED THE 6 MARCH 1844 TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND SECURITY WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AT CAPE COAST.

THE OTHER 16 TRADITIONAL STATES WHICH SIGNED THE 1844 TREATY WERE ABORA, AJUMAKO, ANOMABU, ASSIN ATTANDASU, ASSIN APEMANIM, BREMAN ASIKUMA, CAPE COAST, DENKYIRA, DIXCOVE, DOMINASE, EKUMFI, GOMOA, JAMES TOWN (ACCRA), TWIFO, WASSA AMENFI, AND WASSA FIASE.

THE 1844 TREATY WAS SIGNED FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A JOINT FORCE TO DEFEND THE 17 TRADITIONAL STATES AGAINST INVASION OF THE ARMIES OF OTHER EUROPEAN STATES AND OTHER AFRICAN STATES IN THE GOLD COAST AREA.

NANA YAW DUODU CAME FROM THE ASONA/DWIMANA CLAN. THE ASONA/DWIMANA CLAN IS ONE OF THE SEVEN CLAN-BASED "UNIVERSAL" MATRILINEAL STRUCTURES OF AKAN CULTURE AS PRACTISED BY THE 25 MILLION AKANS, BELONGING TO ABOUT 30 SUB-GROUPS AND TRIBES, LIVING IN GHANA AND LA COTE D'IVOIRE AND THOSE OF THE DISAPORA.

THE OTHER SIX AKAN "UNIVERSAL" MATRILINEAL CLAN STRUCTURES ARE (1) ADUANA/ABERADE, (2) AGONA/ANANA/YAA AGO, (3) ASENIE/ATWAFO, (4) BRETUO/TWIDAN, (5) EKOANA AND (6) OYOKO.

BASED ON LANGUAGE DIALECT CLASSIFICATION BY THE BUREAU OF GHANAIAN LANGUAGES, THE 20 AKAN SUBGROUPS IN GHANA ARE (1) AGONA, (2) AHAFO, (3) AHANTA, (4) AKUAPEM, (5) AKWAMU, (6) AKYEM, (7) AOWIN, (8) ASANTE, (9) ASSIN, (10) BAWLE, (11) BONO, (12) CHOKOSI, (13) DENKYIRA, (14) EVALUE, (15) FANTE, (16) KWAHU, (17) NZEMA, (18) SEFWI, (19) TWIFO AND (20) WASSA.

THE FOUR GOVERNMENT-APPROVED WRITTEN AKAN LANGUAGE DIALECTS USED IN PRIMARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS IN GHANA ARE AKUAPEM (TWI), ASANTE (TWI), FANTE AND NZEMA.

AGONA NSABA IS LARGELY INHABITED BY THE AGONA SUBGROUP OF AKANS, WHICH IS A RELATIVELY SMALL GROUP. MEMBERS OF ALL SEVEN "UNIVERSAL" MATRILINEAL CLANS LIVE AT AGONA NSABA IN ADDITION TO OTHER MEMBERS OF OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS AND NON-GHANAIANS.

PEOPLE AT AGONA NSABA GENERALLY SPEAK THE AGONA DIALECT OF THE AKAN LANGUAGE. THIS DIALECT IS LARGELY A CORE TWI LANGUAGE WITH SOME MODERATE AMOUNTS OF FANTE EXPRESSIONS.

THE AGONA DIALECT WAS PROPOSED AS A COMPROMISE NATIONAL AKAN LANGUAGE DURING THE FIRST REPUBLIC BUT ITS IMPLEMENTATION NEVER TOOK OFF.

THE RELATIVELY LARGE AKAN (TWI) COMPONENT OF THE AGONA DIALECT IS DUE TO THE FACT THAT THE TWO TRADITIONAL COUNCILS IN THE AGONA AREA - THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL AND THE AGONA NYAKROM TRADITIONAL COUNCIL - ARE DIRECTLY LINKED BY LINEAGE AND BLOOD TO AKAN (TWI)-SPEAKING TRADITIONAL COUNCILS.

THE ASONA/DWIMANA PARAMOUNT CHIEF OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL IS A DIRECT MATRILINEAL COUSIN OF THE PARAMOUNT CHIEFS OF AKYEM KYEBI AND AKROPONG AKUAPIM.

THE SECOND FACTOR IS THAT THE OYOKO CLAN PARAMOUNT CHIEF AT AGONA NYAKROM CAME DIRECTLY FROM THE CURRENT KUMASI TRADITIONAL COUNCIL WHICH USED TO BE CALLED KWAMAN TRADITIONAL COUNCIL IN 1660 AD WHEN SEVERAL OF THE OYOKO CLAN CHIEFS LED BY CHIEF KWAKU NYARKO MIGRATED TO THE AGONA AREA.

A THIRD FACTOR ACCOUNTING FOR THE LARGE TWI COMPONENT IN THE AGONA DIALECT IS THE MIGRATION OF FACTIONS OF THE ROYAL AGONA/ANANA/YAA AGO FAMILY FROM AGONA IN THE CURRENT ASHANTI REGION TO ESTABLISH A NEW SETTLEMENT CALLED KWANYAKO IN 1680 AD.

THE PEOPLE FROM THE ROYAL AGONA/ANANA/YAA AGO CLAN LED BY CHIEF KWASI NYARKO FOUNDED THE TOWN OF KWANYAKO (SHORTENED VERSION OF KWASI NYARKO KROM OR KWASI NYARKO TOWN) AND INTEGRATED IT INTO THE AGONA STATE.

CHIEF KWASI NYARKO AND HIS ELITE SOLDIERS WERE AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE AGONA ARMY THAT DEFEATED THE INVADING AKYEM ARMY UNDER NANA OFORI PANIN I AT AGONA KWANYAKO IN 1701 AD.

WITH THE LOSS OF MANY OF ITS FRONT LINE GENERALS AT AGONA KWANYAKO IN THEIR ABORTIVE INVASION OF AGONA IN 1701, THE AKYEM ARMY WAS SEVERELY WEAKENED, AND WAS DEFEATED BY THE THEN THREE-YEAR OLD EMERGING STATE OF ASANTE IN 1702 IN THE FIRST OF A SERIES OF WARS BETWEEN THE TWO AKAN STATES.

IN 1844, NANA YAW DUODU, UPON THE ADVICE FROM HIS COUNCIL OF STATE OF CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS ADVISORS, WENT TO CAPE COAST TO SIGN THE TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN.

OTHER NEIGHBOURING ASONA/DWIMANA CLAN-LED TRADITIONAL STATES IN THE GOLD COAST AREA SUCH AS AKYEM KYEBI AND AKROPONG AKUAPEM CHOSE NOT TO SIGN THE 1844 TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND SECURITY WITH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT.

THE GOLD COAST ENTITY, ESTABLISHED IN 1844 BY NANA YAW DUODU FROM AGONA NSABA AND 16 OTHER PARAMOUNT CHIEFS WITH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, WAS EXPANDED WITH THE ADDITION OF MORE TRADITIONAL STATES BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT OVER THE 100-YEAR PERIOD FROM 1856 TO 1956.

THE INCORPORATION OF ADDITIONAL TRADITIONAL STATES BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT ONTO THE EXISTING 1844-ESTABLISHED ENTITY CAME THROUGH NEGOTIATIONS AND MILITARY CONQUEST FROM 1856 TO 1902 ESPECIALLY DURING THE EUROPEAN SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA ERA FORMALISED BY THE 1884-85 BERLIN TREATY.

FURTHER, ADDITIONAL TRADITIONAL STATES WERE ADDED TO THE EXISTING GOLD COAST COLONY BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT BASED ON A UNITED NATIONS REFERENDUM RELATED TO WHETHER THE PEOPLE IN THE THEN TRANS VOLTA TOGOLAND (TVT) WOULD JOIN THE GOLD COAST OR REMAIN A SEPARATE ENTITY.

THIS REFERENDUM TOOK PLACE ON 9 MAY 1956 WITH THE MAJORITY OF VOTERS IN TVT DECIDING TO JOIN THE GOLD COAST COLONY.

THE GOLD COAST COLONY BECAME INDEPENDENT ON 6 MARCH 1957 WITH A NEW NAME OF GHANA MAKING AGONA NSABA ONE OF THE ORIGINAL 17 FOUNDING TRADITIONAL STATES OF MODERN GHANA.

THE STRUGGLE FOR POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE OF THE GOLD COAST FROM GREAT BRITAIN WAS FIRST STARTED IN 1865 AD BY A MOVEMENT LED BY KING AGGREY OF CAPE COAST, THE LATTER TOWN WAS THE SITE THAT THE 1844 SECURITY AND FRIENDSHIP TREATY WAS SIGNED.

THE INITIAL INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE STARTED WITH THE VIOLATION BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT OF THE TENETS OF THE 1844 SECURITY AND DEFENCE AGREEMENT AS THE LOCAL BRITISH GOVERNORS ATTEMPTED TO CONSIDERABLY INTERFERE IN THE RUNNING OF THE LOCAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE INDEPENDENT TRADITIONAL AFRICAN STATES.

THE MOVEMENT LED BY KING AGGREY, WHO WAS CROWNED KING OF CAPE COAST IN FEBRUARY 1865, SAW ITS FIRST MAJOR PUBLIC PROTEST EXPRESSION ON 4 SEPTEMBER 1865 IN THE FORM OF A RIOT AT THE CAPE COAST CASTLE; THE RIOT WAS SUPPRESSED BY THE BRITISH WEST INDIAN REGIMENT, A SPECIALIST UNIT OF THE BRITISH ARMY.

SOON AFTER THE 1865 RIOT, THE BRITISH COLONIAL GOVERNOR EXILED KING AGGREY TO SIERRA LEONE. KING AGGREY FELL SICK IN SIERRA LEONE AND RETURNED TO CAPE COAST LATER IN 1865 AS A DEPOSED KING.

HE DIED LATER THAT YEAR MAKING HIM A MARTYR IN THE STRUGGLE OF POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE OF THE GOLD COAST (GHANA).

THE STRUGGLE OF THE MOVEMENT LED BY KING AGGREY FOR POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE OF THE TRADITIONAL AFRICAN STATES, WITHIN A MILITARY PACT WITH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, SIMILAR TO THE MODERN-DAY NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, WHICH IS AN ALLIANCE OF INDEPENDENT STATES, CONTINUED AFTER HIS DEATH IN 1865 IN VARIOUS FORMS.

FOR EXAMPLE, IN 1873, THE PEOPLE OF CAPE COAST, THEN THE CAPITAL OF THE BRITISH COLONY, ORGANISED A MAJOR PROTEST AGAINST THE IMPOSITION OF A LOCAL POLL OR HOUSE TAX ON RESIDENTS BY THE BRITISH LOCAL GOVERNOR WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE LOCAL CITIZENS.

THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT RESPONDED BY MOVING THE CAPITAL OF THE GOLD COAST COLONY FROM CAPE COAST TO JAMES TOWN (ACCRA) IN THAT SAME YEAR, 1873.

JAMES TOWN (ACCRA) WAS ONE OF THE 17 TRADITIONAL STATES THAT SIGNED THE 1844 TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND SECURITY WITH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT.

THE SECOND MAJOR MOVEMENT FOR THE FIGHT OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE GOLD COAST WAS THE ABORIGINES RIGHTS PROTECTION SOCIETY (ARPS), FOUNDED ON 17 MAY 1897, AND LED BY LAWYER JOHN MENSAH SARBAH (ALSO KNOWN AS KOFI MENSAH).

MR. MENSAH SARBAH HAILED FROM ANOMABU AND CAPE COAST, TWO OF THE 17 INDEPENDENT TRADITIONAL STATES, WHICH SIGNED THE 6 MARCH 1844 TREATY WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN. HE WAS BORN IN 1864 AND DIED IN 1910.

MR. MENSAH SARBAH WAS ONE OF THE MAJOR AUTHORITIES ON AKAN CUSTOMARY LAWS PRODUCING SEVERAL MAJOR BOOKS ON AKAN CUSTOMARY LAWS WHICH ARE STILL USED IN MODERN ACADEMIC STUDIES.

ARPS FUNCTIONED FOR ABOUT 40 YEARS FROM 1897 TO 1937 OUTLIVING ITS MAIN FOUNDER, JOHN MENSAH SARBAH, BY ABOUT 27 YEARS.

THE ORGANIZATION SUCCESSFULLY FOUGHT FOR LAND RIGHTS OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND POLITICAL RIGHTS OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF THE GOLD COAST BY APPEALING TO THE BRITISH LEGISLATURE IN LONDON.

THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT HAD INTRODUCED A BILL IN THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT TO TAKE OVER ALL "VACANT" OR "UNUSED" LANDS IN THE GOLD COAST COLONY AS THE PROPERTY OF THE BRITISH CROWN (STATE).

THIS BILL WAS FIERCELY AND PEACEFULLY RESISTED BY THE ARPS USING BRITISH LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF OWNERSHIP AND ECONOMIC PROPERTY RIGHTS OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE UNTIL THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT WITHDREW THE BILL FROM PARLIAMENT.

MR. MENSAH SARBAH AND SEVERAL OF HIS ARPS COLLEAGUES TRAVELLED TO LONDON AND PRESENTED THEIR ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE BILL IN THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT.

THEY ARGUED CLEARLY AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT BILL USING SEVERAL VALUATION PRINCIPLES NOW ESTABLISHED IN MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS RELATED TO THE OPTION USE VALUE, VICARIOUS USE VALUE AND BEQUEST USE VALUE OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSET AS OPPOSED TO ONLY ITS DIRECT USE VALUE FOR HUMAN BEINGS.

THEY ARGUED THAT LANDS THAT WERE NOT CURRENTLY USED BY INDIGENOUS PEOPLE COULD NOT BE CLASSIFIED AS VACANT LANDS OR LANDS THAT DID NOT BELONG TO ANYBODY TO BE TAKEN OVER BY THE BRITISH CROWN.

SUCH LANDS HAD CLEARLY-DEFINED OWNERS WHO CHOSE THE APPROPRIATE TIMES TO USE THOSE LANDS BY THE CURRENT AND FUTURE GENERATIONS OF THE OWNERS IN CONSULTATION WITH THEIR CLAN LINEAGE ELDERS AND CHIEFS AS TO THEIR BEST USES.

THE THIRD MAJOR MOVEMENT FOR POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE WAS LED BY MR. GEORGE GRANT, A LATTER-DAY MEMBER OF THE ARPS, WHO FOUNDED THE UNITED GOLD COAST CONVENTION (UGCC) AND REGISTERED THE ASSOCIATION IN SEKONDI WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF LAWYER R.S. BLAY IN 1947.

ARPS GAVE BIRTH TO UGCC. HOWEVER, UNLIKE THE FORMER, UGCC ONLY EXISTED FOR 3 YEARS FROM 1947 TO 1950. DUE TO ITS BREAKUP, THE UGCC COULD NOT CONTEST THE FIRST NATIONAL ELECTION ON 8 FEBRUARY 1951. THIS ELECTION WAS WON BY A BIG MARGIN BY THE CONVENTION PEOPLE'S PARTY (CPP) LED BY DR. KWAME NKRUMAH.

THE FOURTH AND THE MOST IMPORTANT MAJOR LEG OF THE POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE OF THE GOLD COAST WAS LED BY DR. KWAME NKRUMAH AND THE CPP FROM 1949 TO 1957. CPP WAS FOUNDED ON 12 JUNE 1949 AT SALTPOND. SEVERAL KEY GRASSROOT LEADERS OF THE CPP INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT FROM 1949 TO 1957 WERE FROM AGONA NSABA.

PROFILE OF THE COMPLETED NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE UNDERTAKEN FROM AUGUST 1995 TO AUGUST 2017.

THIS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE DEALT WITH THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF 22 YEARS OF APPLICATION OF POLITICAL ECONOMY AND RESOURCE & ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS THEORIES TO ADVANCE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AT AGONA NSABA AND IN THE AGONA AREA OF GHANA.

NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE WAS A COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH UPTAKE PROGRAMME FOR AGONA NSABA, AND THE AGONA EAST AND AGONA WEST DISTRICTS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA.

WE USED AGONA NSABA AS THE CORE EXPERIMENTAL BASE AND APPLIED POLITICAL ECONOMY AND RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS PRINCIPLES TO THE COMMUNITY SETTING.

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY PRINCIPLES RECOGNIZED A COMMUNITY SETTING SUCH AS AGONA NSABA AS CONSISTING OF SEVERAL STRUCTURES NAMELY (1) INDIVIDUALS, NUCLEAR FAMILIES, AND BUSINESS FIRMS (MARKET STRUCTURES), (2) COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONS, (3) GOVERNMENT OR STATE INSTITUTIONS AND (4) INTERNATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS.

THE INTERNATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS INCLUDED THE EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF SWITZERLAND AND GERMANY WHICH HAS KEPT CONTINUOUS CONTACTS WITH THE AGONA NSABA COUNTERPART CHURCH SINCE ITS FIRST ESTABLISHMENT IN 1890 WITH REGULAR VISITS TO THE TOWN.

COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONS AND STRUCTURES AT AGONA NSABA INCLUDE EXTENDED FAMILIES, CLAN LINEAGES, CHIEFTAINCY STRUCTURES, LOCAL AND OVERSEAS-BASED AGONA NSABA WELFARE IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATIONS, CHRISTIAN CHURCHES, MOSQUE-BASED ISLAMIC ORGANIZATIONS, AND TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS.

AN EXAMPLE OF A LOCAL WELFARE ASSOCIATION IS THE AGONA NSABA CITIZENS ASSOCIATION OF GREATER ACCRA (ANCAGA) BASED IN ACCRA, THE CAPITAL CITY OF GHANA.

AN EXAMPLE OF OVERSEAS-BASED WELFARE ASSOCIATION IS THE AGONA NSABA CITIZENS ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA (ANCANA) BASED AT 15647 MILLBROOK LANE, LAUREL, MARYLAND, 20707-3318, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA WHICH WAS FOUNDED IN 2012.

THESE POLITICAL ECONOMY PRINCIPLES WERE USED TO ANALYSE THE EXTENSIVE AND PERVASIVE FAILURES OF THE MODERN GHANAIAN STATE (NATIONAL GOVERNMENT) TO PROVIDE BASIC WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION SERVICES FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS, INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC PLACES IN TOWNS AND COMMUNITIES SUCH AS AGONA NSABA.

FROM THE ANALYSIS, IT WAS CLEAR THAT EFFICIENT MOBILIZATION OF RESOURCES AND EFFECTIVE LOBBYING TECHNIQUES WERE IMPORTANT TOOLS TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND RELATED PROBLEMS AT AGONA NSABA.

THE SPECIFIC COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS INITIATED BY THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE OF THESE GOVERNMENT FAILURES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AT AGONA NSABA WERE UNDERTAKEN IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL.

THESE WERE CAPTURED BY THE ACTUAL PLANS AND ACTIVITIES DELIVERED BY THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE FROM AUGUST 1995 TO AUGUST 2017.

THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE WAS UNDERTAKEN IN SIX PHASES.

COORDINATOR OF PHASES 1 TO 6 PROJECTS: KWABENA ASOMANIN ANAMAN

LOCAL AGONA NSABA MANAGER PHASES 1 TO 3 PROJECTS (1995 TO 2006): CHARLES EFFUM

LOCAL AGONA NSABA MANAGER PHASES 4 AND 5 PROJECTS(2007 TO 2011): ISAAC KWABENA OBENG

LOCAL AGONA NSABA MANAGERS PHASE 6 PROJECT (2012 TO 2017): MRS. BETTY EYIFAH ACQUAH, HEADMISTRESS OF NSABA PRESBYTERIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL, AND KOFI AMOAFUL.

SUMMARY OF PHASE 6 ACTIVITIES FROM 2015 TO 2017

FROM JANUARY 2015 TO AUGUST 2017, WE IMPLEMENTED NEW COMMUNITY PROJECTS AT AGONA NSABA, AND ALSO AT AGONA KWANYAKO BOTH IN THE AGONA EAST DISTRICT, AND CULTURAL ENHANCEMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE ENTIRE AGONA AREA (BOTH AGONA EAST AND AGONA WEST DISTRICTS).

THESE PROJECTS ARE CALLED PHASE 6 PROJECTS SINCE THE EARLIER PHASES, PHASES 1 TO 5 PROJECTS WERE UNDERTAKEN FROM AUGUST 1995 TO AUGUST 2011.

POST-PROJECT MONITORING AND ADJUSTMENTS TO PHASES 1 TO 5 PROJECTS STARTED IN SEPTEMBER 2011 AND WERE ALSO COMPLETED IN AUGUST 2017.

THE NEW PROJECTS (PHASE 6 PROJECTS) WERE UNDERTAKEN FROM JANUARY 2015 TO AUGUST 2017 AND INVOLVE FIVE MAIN COMPONENTS. DETAILS OF THESE FIVE COMPONENTS OF THE PHASE 6 PROJECTS ARE DESCRIBED BELOW:

1. A SEVEN-ROOM BATH HOUSE, INCORPORATING A MODERN TOILET FACILITY, FOR THE AGONA NSABA PRESBYTERIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL AT AGONA NSABA.

THIS FACILITY WAS COMPLETED AND HANDED OVER TO THE AGONA NSABA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, THE LOCAL SPONSORS OF THE PROJECT, ON 15 SEPTEMBER 2016 AT THE START OF THE 2016/2017 ACADEMIC YEAR AND WAS FORMALLY COMMISSIONED AT AGONA NSABA ON 28 JUNE 2017.

THE FACILITY HAS TWO BATHROOMS WITH SHOWERS - ONE EACH FOR BOYS AND GIRLS - AND FIVE WATER CLOSET TOILET ROOMS.

EACH WATER CLOSET TOILET ROOM HAS TWO CHAMBERS – A TOILET CHAMBER AND A WASHING ROOM CHAMBER.

THE FIVE TOILET ROOMS ARE DESIGNATED AS FOLLOWS: TWO ROOMS FOR MALE STUDENTS, TWO ROOMS FOR FEMALE STUDENTS AND ONE ROOM FOR STAFF MEMBERS.

THE FACILITY, SITED AT THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH SALEM WARD OF THE TOWN, IS EQUIPPED WITH ONE 4,000-LITRE WATER STORAGE TANK TO ENSURE CONSTANT SUPPLY OF WATER FOR THE FACILITY.

THIS BATHHOUSE FACILITY COST 58,853.03 GHANA CEDIS OR 15,125.61 UNITED STATES DOLLARS.

2. A 12-ROOM MODERN BATH HOUSE, INCORPORATING A MODERN TOILET FACILITY FOR THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL, AGONA NSABA.

THE FACILITY WAS HANDED OVER TO THE OMANHENE AND THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL ON SUNDAY 6 NOVEMBER 2016 AT AGONA NSABA.

IT WAS FORMALLY COMMISSIONED AT THE CLIMAX OF THE ANNUAL AKWANBO FESTIVAL OF THE CHIEFS AND PEOPLE OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL AREA ON SATURDAY 19 NOVEMBER 2016.

THIS FACILITY HAS 12 ROOMS - FOUR BATHROOMS AND EIGHT WATER CLOSET TOILET ROOMS.

TWO OF THE FOUR BATH ROOMS HAVE DESIGNATED POINTS FOR THE INSTALLATION OF WATER HEATERS TO ALLOW FOR WARM WATER FOR BATHING.

THE FACILITY IS EQUIPPED WITH TWO 3,000-LITRE WATER STORAGE TANKS TO ENSURE CONSTANT SUPPLY OF WATER FOR THE FACILITY.

THIS BATHHOUSE FACILITY COST 98,398.73 GHANA CEDIS OR 24,978.82 UNITED STATES DOLLARS.

(3) THE SUPPLY OF PIPE BORNE WATER TO SEVEN HOMES AND HOUSEHOLDS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF AGONA NSABA COSTING 11,390 GHANA CEDIS OR 2,848.69 UNITED STATES DOLLARS.

THIS ACTIVITY HAS LED TO THE SUPPLY OF PIPE BORNE WATER TO 33 HOMES AND HOUSES IN ALL PARTS OF THE MAIN NSABA TOWN BASED ON THE SIX PHASES OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SINCE DECEMBER 1995.

THE 33 HOUSEHOLDS AND CENTRES ARE LOCATED IN THE SALEM WARD (13), ZONGO WARD (3), LODGE WARD (3), FREETOWN WARD (9), ANKOBEA WARD (2), ABOASA WARD (1) AND BROFOYEDRU WARD (2).

THE 33 HOMES AND HOUSES SUPPLIED WITH PIPE BORNE WATER FROM THE PROJECTS ARE MADE UP OF 16 COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONAL HOMES OR CENTRES AND 17 PRIVATE HOMES.

THE 16 COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONAL HOMES AND CENTRES ARE TEN PUBLIC SCHOOLS, TWO CHURCHES, THE TOWN MOSQUE, TWO HOMES OF TRADITIONAL HEALERS AND BIRTH ATTENDANTS, AND THE STOOL HOUSE OF THE BRETUO/TWIDAN CLAN LINEAGE.

THE BRETUO/TWIDAN CLAN INSTALS THE SANAA HENE OR THE FINANCE MINISTER OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL.

ALSO UNDER THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE, THE WATER CLOSET TOILET FACILITY OF THE PALACE OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL, THAT IS ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC AND VISITORS, WAS RENOVATED IN 2016.

FURTHER, TWO MORE MODERN TOILET FACILITIES WERE BUILT FOR INSTITUTIONS BRINGING TO SEVEN THE NUMBER OF SUCH FACILITIES UNDER THESE PROJECTS AT NSABA.

THESE SEVEN COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONAL TOILET FACILITIES ARE LOCATED AT THE SALEM WARD (3), ZONGO WARD (1) AND FREETOWN WARD (3).

(4) THE 2015 TO 2017 COMMUNITY PROJECTS WERE EXTENDED TO AGONA KWANYAKO, THE LARGEST TOWN IN THE AGONA EAST DISTRICT. TOGETHER WITH AGONA NSABA, THE TWO TOWNS HAVE A POPULATION OF 30,000 CONSTITUTING 30% OF THE POPULATION OF THE AGONA EAST DISTRICT.

THE PROJECT COMPLETED FOR THE AGONA KWANYAKO TRADITIONAL DIVISIONAL COUNCIL WAS A 18-ROOM MODERN BATH HOUSE INCORPORATING 12-ROOM WATER CLOSET TOILET FACILITY.

THE MODERN BATHHOUSE FACILITY SITED AT THE AHOROSO WARD OF THE TOWN, WAS COMMISSIONED DURING THE AKWANBO FESTIVAL HELD ON 15 OCTOBER 2016 AND IT COST 99,931 GHANA CEDIS OR US$25,591.

(5) THE FIFTH MAJOR COMPONENT OF PHASE 6 PROJECT WAS THE STRENGTHENING AND ENHANCING OF AGONA CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS AND SYSTEMS.

THIS COMPONENT INCLUDED THE RE-INTRODUCTION OF AKAN (TWI) BACK TO PRESBYTERIAN SCHOOLS AND SELECTED INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS IN AGONA EAST AND AGONA WEST DISTRICTS WHICH TOOK OFF IN JANUARY 2016 AFTER A 20-YEAR ABSENCE.

THIS WAS AFTER A WORLDWIDE APPEAL TO THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, ACCRA, GHANA BY AGONA CITIZENS FROM ALL SIX CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD IN 2014 AND 2015.

AKAN (TWI) WAS TAUGHT IN AGONA SCHOOLS FROM 1894 TO 1994. THIS STARTED WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A PRIMARY SCHOOL AT AGONA NSABA BY MISSIONARY JAKOB SITZLER FROM BASEL, SWITZERLAND IN 1894.

THE REINTRODUCTION OF AKAN (TWI) FOR INDIGENOUS AGONA STUDENTS WAS NECESSARY TO ADDRESS THE RAPIDLY FALLING STANDARDS OF INDIGENOUS STUDENTS IN THE AGONA AREA.

THE FALLING STANDARDS OF EDUCATION HAVE BECOME A CONCERN TO AGONA CITIZENS IN GHANA AND IN THE DISAPORA WITH COMMUNITY EFFORTS BEING DEVELOPED TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM INCLUDING THE REINTRODUCTION OF AKAN (TWI) IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.

THE REVISED TOTAL COSTS OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS, INCLUDING THE AGONA KWANYAKO TRADITIONAL DIVISIONAL COUNCIL MODERN BATHHOUSE FACILITY PROJECT, OVER THE 22-YEAR PERIOD FROM AUGUST 1995 TO AUGUST 2017, WERE US$144,543.

THESE PROJECTS WERE FINANCED BY EXTERNAL DONORS CHIEFLY SCHOOLS, CHURCHES AND PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS IN SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PLUS CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE LOCAL AGONA COMMUNITIES AND BENEFICIARIES OF THE PROJECTS.

THE COSTS OF US$144,543 INCURRED FOR THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS WERE BORNE BY EXTERNAL DONORS FROM AUSTRALIA, BRUNEI DARUSSALAM, GHANA AND THE UNITED STATES (US$ 92,003; 63.65%), LOCAL BENEFICIARIES, SCHOOLS, CHURCHES AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS (US$29,438; 20.37%), AND KWABENA A. ANAMAN AND NUCLEAR FAMILY (US$23,102; 15.98%).

THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE WAS FULLY COMPLETED AT THE END OF AUGUST 2017 AFTER 22 YEARS OF ACTIVITIES WITH ALL MAJOR PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS MET OR EXCEEDED.

REPORTS OF THE PHASES 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6 PROJECTS WERE HANDED OVER TO THE NEWLY-INSTALLED PARAMOUNT CHIEF OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL AREA ON 12 SEPTEMBER 2017 AT AGONA NSABA FORMALLY BRINGING TO AN END THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE.

VARIOUS REPORTS OF THE DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE WERE PUBLISHED IN 2016 AND 2018 BY RESEARCHGATE, BERLIN, GERMANY AND ARE AVAILABLE AT ITS WEBSITE ON WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET.

SUMMARY REPORTS ON THE PHASES 1 TO 5 PROJECTS ARE PROVIDED IN THE LATTER SECTIONS OF THIS WEBSITE.

THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE WAS ONE OF THE 24 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A MULTI-YEAR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN ADOPTED BY THE OMANHENE (PARAMOUNT CHIEF) AND THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL IN 1998 TO BE UNDERTAKEN OVER A PERIOD OF 15 YEARS FROM JUNE 1998 TO JUNE 2013.

INFORMATION ON 16 COMPONENT PROJECTS OF THIS LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT PLAN ARE CONTAINED IN PAGES 41 TO 45 OF THE PHASE 2 REPORT OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE PRODUCED IN JUNE 1998 AND PUBLISHED ON RESEARCHGATE IN 2016.

AS AT END OF JUNE 2018, ALL THE 24 COMMUNITY-BASED PROJECTS OUTLINED IN THIS 15-YEAR LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL HAD BEEN COMPLETED.

THE ORIGINAL 15-YEAR PERIOD PLANNED FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 24 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS WAS EXTENDED BY FIVE YEARS TO 20 YEARS WITH THE COMPLETION DATE ADJUSTED FROM 2013 TO 2018 DUE TO A NUMBER OF FACTORS.

THESE FACTORS INCLUDED THE MODIFICATION OF THE PLANNED RENOVATION OF THE PRESBYTERIAN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL AND THE METHODIST PRIMARY SCHOOL INTO A PROGRAMME OF FULL RECONSTRUCTION OF THESE TWO SCHOOLS.

OTHER FACTORS INCLUDED THE ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS INCORPORATED INTO VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF THE 24-PROJECT PROGRAMME BASED ON CONTINUOUS LEARNING EXPERIENCE.

ANOTHER MAJOR FACTOR FOR THE EXTENSION OF THE COMPLETION DATE OF THE 24 PROJECTS FROM 2013 TO 2018 WAS THE DEATH OF THE OMANHENE (PARAMOUNT CHIEF) OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL AREA, NANA OKESEKU AFARI MINTAH II ON 23 MARCH 2007.

NANA AFARI MINTAH II WAS A PRINCIPAL DRIVING FORCE BEHIND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THESE 24 COMMUNITY-BASED PROJECTS.

FURTHER, THERE WAS A LONG DELAY IN THE INSTALLATION OF A NEW PARAMOUNT CHIEF FOR THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL AREA AFTER THE DEATH OF NANA AFARI MINTAH II.

EXCEPT FOR A BRIEF PERIOD OF 40 DAYS, THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL AREA DID NOT HAVE AN INSTALLED PARAMOUNT CHIEF FOR THE NINE-YEAR PERIOD FROM 23 MARCH 2007 TO 1 JULY 2016.

THE LONG DELAY IN THE INSTALLATION OF A NEW PARAMOUNT CHIEF AFFECTED SEVERAL PROJECTS INCLUDING THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE RELATED TO THE DIFFICULTY IN ACQUIRING PIECES OF LAND FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKS FROM SOME CHIEFS.

INFORMATION ON THE 24 COMMUNITY PROJECTS AT AGONA NSABA, AGONA EAST DISTRICT, CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA UNDER THE SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE 15-YEAR PERIOD FROM 1998 TO 2013.

1. Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative.

The Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative was an initiative coordinated by Mr. Kwabena Asomanin Anaman from August 1995 to August 2017. This development initiative was fully completed at the end of August 2017. Its project reports were archived through several publication outlets.

The completion of this special development initiative coincided with the return of various government institutions and services to Agona Nsaba, after their curtailment and removal during the 27-year politically-unstable period in Ghana, starting from the date of the first coup on 24 February 1966 and ending with the start of the Fourth Republican era on 7 January 1993.

The new period of political stability in Ghana since January 1993 has helped to revitalise several local community and State organizations and institutions to advance development at Agona Nsaba exemplified by project activities enumerated below from 1998 to 2018.

2. Renovation of the Presbyterian Junior Secondary School.

A new modern junior secondary school building complex was built to replace the partially destroyed school building; this new complex was completed in November 2012. The old school building constructed in 1900 was partially destroyed by torrential rains in 2010.

The new 16-room building complex including a modern water closet toilet facility was built by the Ghana Education Trust Fund under the initiative of Brigadier-General Joseph Nunoo-Mensah, an old student of the School.

In 2016, the modern water closet toilet facility of the new school building complex was connected to a separate water closet toilet facility built for the School in 2000 to mark its Centenary by the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative through an underground pipeline.

3. Construction of new Presbyterian Primary School

A new Presbyterian Primary School building complex was completed in the Salem Ward in 1996 through the combined efforts of the local Presbyterian Church and contributions from various non-governmental organisations including the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative.

The old Primary School building built by Basel Missionary Jakob Sitzler in 1894 was converted into a modern kindergarten in 1995 and is currently housing two grades of kindergarten pupils numbering 160.

A modern bath house incorporating water closet toilet facility was also added to the School infrastructure in September 2016 through the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative.

4. Construction of new Roman Catholic Junior Secondary School

This project began in 1997. A pavilion-style three classroom building was constructed by the Agona East District Council for the Junior Secondary School. This building was upgraded by the local Roman Catholic Church in 2016 and 2017 with the full development of an enclosed structure that allowed the doors and windows to be properly locked.

5. Construction of new Roman Catholic Primary School.

A new building for the Roman Catholic Primary School was completed by the local community with the assistance of the United States Agency for International Development in 2005.

Further, in 2016 the Agona East District Assembly constructed a new kindergarten building attached to the Primary School.

The new kindergarten and the primary school are both connected to the pipe borne water supply system established by the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative for the schools and adjoining area in June 1998.

6. Construction of a new Islamic Primary School

A new six-room Islamic Primary School started in 1998 has been fully completed by the local community with the assistance of German-based Nsaba expatriate and other donors.

7. Construction of a new Islamic Junior Secondary School

A three-room building for the Islamic Junior Secondary School was completed in 2012 by the local Community with support from external donors. In addition, a modern ICT centre was also completed in 2012 by Brigadier-General Joseph Nunoo-Mensah for the School based on a request from the Agona Nsaba Islamic Community.

8. Expansion of the AME Zion Primary School
and Construction of the Building for AME Zion Junior Secondary School.

These schools are relatively new and are sited at the outskirts of the town near the Health Centre. They were established by the AME Zion Church, a Christian denomination, beginning with the Primary School in 1993.

New buildings and a modern toilet facility had been constructed by the local community with the assistance of various non-governmental organisations (NGO).

These schools were renovated by the Building for the Future Generation Organization, with the renovation funded by the Weitblick-Freiburg, a student-based NGO based in Freiburg, Germany, in memory of Ms Maria Ladenburger, 1996 to 2016.

The completed renovated facilities were handed over to the AME Zion Church and the Schools in November 2017.

9. Construction of a new Methodist Primary School

The old Methodist Primary School building sited at the Ankobea Ward of the town and built by the Methodist Church Missionaries in 1914 was destroyed by torrential rains. A new modern 16-room school building complex with modern toilet facilities and fenced structures was completed in 2015 by the Agona East District Assembly.

10. Construction of Apartment Housing Block for Teachers

A three-unit apartment complex for housing of teachers of the Methodist Primary and Junior Secondary Schools was completed in 2016 by the Agona East District Assembly.

11. Development of Modern Toilet Facilities for Schools

Modern water closet toilet facilities for four junior secondary schools were built in 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2008 under the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative. A fifth toilet facility for the AMZ Junior Secondary School was completed in 2014 under the non-governmental Ghana WASH programme.

12. Construction of Assembly Hall/Social Centre by the Local Methodist Church.

This project was started in 1997 by the local Methodist Church financed through several Church harvests organised by the local Church. The project was completed in 2000. A modern six-room water closet toilet facility was completed and added to the Church facility in 2015 through the contributions of Church members.

13. Construction of a new Church Building as District Headquarters of the Church of Pentecost.

Land was acquired for this project with initial work started in 1997. The construction of the Church building had been completed by the local Church with major renovation undertaken starting in 2017.

The 2017 renovation also involved the construction of an eight-room bath house made up of two shower rooms and six toilet rooms as an additional infrastructure to the Church Headquarters.

The Church of Pentecost has three additional Church buildings including its old Church building at the centre of Agona Nsaba town, and two new church buildings constructed at Adwenpaye and Sweet City wards of the town.

14. Construction of a Mosque by the Muslim Community

The Muslim Community is represented at the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council by the Chief of the Zongo Ward. The construction of a new Mosque was completed in 2008.

The Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative provided a direct pipe borne water supply and associated water storage tank to the Mosque in 2011 based on a gift from Ms Rashidah Jair of Kuala Belait, Brunei Darussalam.

15. Preservation of Ancient Monuments and Historical Assets

(a) The old Presbyterian Church Building built in 1894 by Basel Missionary Jakob Sitzler was completely renovated in 2011 by the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. Missionary Sitzler spent four years at Nsaba, first as a volunteer for two years and as the Specialist Basel Missionary for the other two years. Together with his wife, they built the old Church building and the Primary School and two houses for teachers.

(b) The new Church building/chapel constructed in 1956 has also been fully fenced, renovated and expanded. A modern water closet toilet facility was added to the Church infrastructure in 2011 through the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative.

16. Development of a Community Centre

This project was started by the Agona-Nsaba Citizens Association of Greater Accra (ANCAGA) in 1997. It involved renovation and expansion of the old Agonaman Local Council building for a number of community and social functions. The renovation included the construction of a fence wall which was completed in 1999.

On 29 February 2008, the Government of Ghana re-created the old Agonaman Local Council, which was abolished in October 1971, into a new district council called the Agona East District Assembly.

The National Government took over the renovated community centre for use as its main District Assembly Headquarters with a promise to build a new community centre for the town to replace the one that it had taken over.

The National Government has so far reneged on its own promise to build a new community centre for the town to replace the community centre it took from ANCAGA in 2008.

17. Development of a Library in the Town.

A community-owned and developed library was established in 1997 at a private dwelling by ANCAGA. This facility was expanded with the donation of books by several philanthropists.

18. Development of Modern Toilet Facilities for Residential Areas

Two toilet facilities were completed by the Agona East District Assembly for the Freetown and Brofoyedru Wards. These toilet facilities are of the KVIP type. The Brofoyedru toilet facility was extensively renovated in 2015 while the Freetown Ward facility was completed in 2011.

A 12-room modern bath house and toilet facility was built for the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council in November 2016 under the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative sited at the Freetown Ward.

19. Environmental Protection Activities

(a) These activities included the protection of local rivers and streams from pollution through cleaning and maintenance and the revival of cultural rules and community sanctions by the Paramount Chief designed to prevent abuse of these resources.

Cultural rules for the protection of rivers and water bodies approved by the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council include the prohibition of the dumping of plastic and waste material onto river and water bodies, prohibition of the throwing of fecal matter onto rivers and water bodies and prohibition of open defecation around rivers and water bodies.

Others include the prohibition of sex near water bodies or around rivers and other water bodies, prohibition of mining around or near rivers and water bodies, the prohibition of dumping of large amounts of wood or trees onto rivers and other water bodies, and the prohibition of the cutting or logging of selected trees around rivers and other water bodies.

The major river at Agona Nsaba is the Akora River which also tranverses Agona Nyakrom, Agona Swedru and other areas.

Since September 2016, the enforcement of environmental protection rules has been stepped up by the new Paramount Chief who has prepared a detailed plan of action to establish improved environmental cleanliness and sanity in the Agona Nsaba Traditional Area.

(b) Community waste collection centres have been set up in several places in the town for the dumping of refuse and household waste by the Agona East District Assembly. However, the separation of wastes into recyclable and non-recyclable items has not been done as planned.

(c) Revival of composting activities and the reuse of refuse dumps and old landfills for farming and gardening activities as was done in the 1960s and 1970s in the Ankobea Ward near the major road from Agona Nsaba to Akyem Oda was limited.

20. Construction of a Health Centre

The construction of a health centre to serve the population of the town was started by the Agona District Council and the Ministry of Health in 1995 after community lobbying efforts led by the then Paramount Chief (Omanhene) of the Agona Nsaba Traditional Area, Nana Okeseku Afari Mintah II.

The main buildings were constructed from 1996 to 1999. The health centre was completed in 2000 and open for business in that year. The construction of the health centre was undertaken with contributions by the local community through occasional community labour mobilization and the donation of free land by the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council to the Ministry of Health.

The construction of the buildings of the health centre was supported with a one-off grant from two Japanese companies based in Tokyo, Japan in 2000. The coordination of the grant from these two companies to support the construction of the health centre was undertaken by Dr. Isaac Asiedu, an Agona Nsaba Expatriate resident in Tokyo.

In 2016, it was proposed by the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council to the National Government to upgrade the health centre to a District Hospital.

In this regard, several acres of prime land around the health centre were cleared and a boundary fence had been developed to demarcate land belonging to the health centre for its future development.

21. Renovation of Major Roads in the Town

The major roads in the town were renovated largely by the Ministry of Agriculture and associated donors in 2011 when the town was chosen to host the National Farmers’ Day celebration in December 2011.

The main roads in the town were planned by the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council with some technical assistance from the resident Swiss-German Basel Missionaries in the early 20th Century making the town a modern planned entity.

22. The Re-establishment of a Magistrate Court

A regularly functioning Magistrate Court was established at Agona Nsaba from 1960 to 1971. The Court was abolished in 1971 with the abolition of the Agonaman Local Council.

In 2015, the Judicial Service of Ghana in a letter to the Agona East District Assembly approved the re-establishment of a Magistrate Court at Agona Nsaba. However, the Judicial Service of Ghana has not yet appointed officials for the court.

The Building Complex housing the Magistrate Court was completed and was commissioned by the Central Regional Minister, Mr. Aquinas Tawiah in 2015.

This Building Complex housing the proposed Magistrate Court also currently houses a modern District Fire Service Station which was opened in March 2016.

23. Development of a Tarred Feeder Road from Agona Nsaba to Agona Nyakrom

The five-kilometre feeder road from Agona Nsaba to Agona Nyakrom covers a major cocoa producing area in Ghana and has been in existence for over 100 years as a major feeder road and over 300 years as a major bush path linking the two towns.

The development of bush paths linking the two towns started around 1660 AD with the arrival of factions of Oyoko Clan Chiefs and their people led by Chief Kwaku Nyarko from Kwaman (currently Kumasi) and Kuntanase in the current Ashanti region to establish the new town called Nyakrom (Kwaku Nyarko Krom or Kwaku Nyarko Town).

In 2015, work started on the tarring of this five-kilometre road through an intensive three-year community lobbying efforts from 2013 to 2015.

These community lobbying efforts were led by the former Member of Parliament (MP) for Agona West Constituency, Mr. Obeng Inkoom of Agona Abodom and were directed at the Government of Ghana and its various agencies dealing with the construction of roads.

The construction of bridges, culverts and initial surfacing and resurfacing was completed in 2015 and 2016. The actual tarring of the road was completed in 2017.

This newly-tarred road links the already completed newly-tarred feeder roads in the farming areas of the Agona West District such as Mensakrom to Nyakrom and Nyakrom to Kwaman roads which were completed in 2016.

These other roads were also made possible through community lobbying efforts led by the former Agona West MP, Mr. Obeng-Inkoom.

The newly-tarred Agona Nsaba-Agona Nyakrom road is also connected to the newly-completed College of Distance Education of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana's third largest university.

Construction of this multi-million Ghana Cedi, multi-complex College of Distance Education was started in 2011 and is scheduled to be formally opened for business in 2018. The college is sited at the outskirts of Agona Nyakrom town and has residential facilities.

24. Construction of a New Agona Nsaba Town Central Market with a Lorry Park

After about 20 years of intensive community lobbying (since 1996), a new modern self-contained central market was completed by the Central Regional Development Corporation in August 2016 after a four-year development work programme starting in 2012.

The facility was handed over to the Agona East District Assembly on 26 July 2017 and was formally opened for business activities on 31 January 2018.

The market contains a six-room modern water closet toilet facility, a crèche with modern water closet toilet facility and several shower rooms, 22 permanent lockable store rooms each with electricity connection, dozens of market space centres and about 30 mobile cubicles for the selling of agricultural produce. An adjacent lorry park was completed in 2017.

The new central market replaces the old market built by the Omanhene (Paramount Chief) in 1930. The old market which had become dilapidated was destroyed in November 2011 to pave way for the construction of this new market.

CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE (1995-2017).

The Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative was particularly useful in ameliorating the environmental sanitation problem of Agona Nsaba and its environs with modern water and sanitation facilities reaching all public schools in the town. The projects showed that environmental sanitation quality of a town in Ghana could be substantially improved over a period of time if there was consistent commitment.

In Ghana, currently, much of the commitment and responsibility for the production and maintenance of quality environmental sanitation services in public schools, public domain and public places rest with the National Government and Local Government (District Assembly or Council).

An important role of the Government is to provide basic environmental sanitation services for public schools, public institutions and public places.

Community-based efforts need to focus more on the provision of environmental sanitation services for non-governmental institutions.

There is a clear need for district chief executives (DCEs) and Mayors of major towns in Ghana to be directly elected by their citizens to ensure accountability in the production and maintenance of basic environmental sanitation services.

The appointment of DCEs and Mayors by the President of the Republic of Ghana is one of the major causal factors of the country’s very poor environmental sanitation quality.

Ghana currently has a very poor environmental sanitation quality based on several international ranking sources.

These sources include the World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Group Report and the Yale University Bi-annual Environmental Performance Rankings.

The WHO/UNICEF 2017 Joint Monitoring Report ranks Ghana among the nine countries in the world with the worst basic sanitation facilities out of the 206 nations and territories assessed.

Ghana was ranked the seventh worst with Togo and Benin both in West Africa. Only six countries, Chad, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Madagascar, Niger and South Sudan had worse basic sanitation rankings.

The two tables below indicate the proportions of people in Ghana, and the 10 Southeast Asian Countries, who have modern sanitation facilities (PROPSANIT), and the country's performance ranking (WORLD RANKING) based on the 2018 Yale University International Country Environmental Performance Rankings.

COUNTRY PROPSANIT
Brunei 98.88
Cambodia 34.43
Ghana 26.05
Indonesia 32.94
Laos 26.05
Malaysia 70.62
Myanmar 31.44
Philippines 47.21
Singapore 100.00
Thailand 71.37
Viet Nam 52.26

COUNTRY WORLD RANKING
Brunei 17
Cambodia 117
Ghana 130
Indonesia 119
Laos 130
Malaysia 46
Myanmar 122
Philippines 99
Singapore 1
Thailand 45
Viet Nam 88

Data from the 2000 and 2010 Ghana National Population Censuses of Ghana, and the Ghana Living Standards Surveys (GLSS) of 2006 and 2013, from the Ghana Statistical Service, show that the sanitation problem had become worse with more people in absolute and relative terms using unimproved sanitation facilities.

For example, the proportion of the population using public toilet facilities, considered to be unimproved sources, increased from 31.4% in 2000 to 34.6% in 2010. The proportion of people in Ghana using unimproved toilet facilities, (public toilet facilities and open defecation sources), increased from 51.6% in 2000 to 53.9% in 2010.

Several other indicators related to environmental sanitation quality in Ghana also worsened from 2000 to 2010 during a period of high economic growth in the country.

For example, the proportion of householders living in owner-occupied dwellings dropped sharply from 57.4% in 2000 to 47.2% in 2010 with increase in the proportion of people renting dwellings from 22.1% to 31.1%.

The proportion of householders living in dwellings with only one sleeping room from also increased from 49.9% in 2000 to 54.4% in 2010 posing greater risk in dealing with sanitation issues at home and increased risk from spread of infectious diseases and disturbed sleep.

In 2010, nationally, the proportion of households for which solid wastes were collected from their homes was 14.4%; and 23.8% of households dumped their solid wastes into public container dumps indicating that 61.2% of households improperly disposed of their solid wastes.

Nationally, the proportion of households that had their liquid wastes disposed of through sewerage systems dropped from 4.5% in 2000 to 3.4% in 2010; the proportion of households which disposed their liquid wastes onto the compounds of their homes increased from 34.6% in 2000 to 35.2% in 2010 indicating greater exposure to sanitation-related diseases.

The annual economic growth rate of Ghana averaged about 6.8% per year over the 2001 to 2012 period with the real gross domestic product increasing well over 100% from 13.7 billion (constant 2006) Ghana cedis in 2001 to 30.0 billion Ghana cedis in 2012.

During this 12-year period, from 2001 to 2012, Ghana received grants and gifts from development partners worth about 8.0 billion US dollars, in addition to extra 4.2 billion US dollars of the country's external debts cancelled in 2006 which reduced the level of external debts from US$6.3 billion to US$2.1 billion as at the end of 2006.

The country became a lower-middle-income country formally in 2009 with the per capita gross domestic product exceeding 1,000 US dollars for the first time since 1961, and 1973-1974.

Despite the record of high economic growth which were among the top 20 in the world over the last two decades, the overall environmental sanitation quality in the country has actually worsened based on both Census and GLSS data.

These empirical findings are clearly at odds with predictions from mainstream neoclassical economic theories related to economic growth.

Economic growth, in many countries around the world, such as Southeast Asia, has led to rapid improvement in the environmental sanitation quality of these countries.

Ghana has had 35 years of continuous positive annual economic growth from 1984 to 2018 ranging from 3.2% in 1984 to 14.0% in 2011, with the annual growth rate exceeding the population growth every year within this period.

Yet, available evidence indicates worsening environmental sanitation quality in Ghana with total uncollected solid wastes growing at an exponential rate in the country.

The worsening of the environmental sanitation quality in Ghana, as measured by various indicators, need to be explained with other theories. Political economy theories explain better the poor environmental sanitation conditions in Ghana in the modern era.

Political economy theories generally suggest that dominant social/ethnic groups largely determine and/or shape the major economic and development outcomes in a nation state.

These theories also recognize the common occurrence of marginalization of people from small minority social/ethnic groups within the nation state throughout the world.

The problem of marginalization is partly addressed through national government policies which allow local people to elect their own Mayors and DCEs; these locally-elected leaders are then held directly responsible for outcomes such as poor environmental sanitation in their areas.

The poor environmental sanitation quality in Ghana in the 21st Century cannot be blamed on Ghanaian culture as the European archives, especially those of the British, clearly showed sophisticated aerated and scientifically-based sanitation and toilet facilities in the palaces and stool houses of local chiefs in the 19th Century.

Further, major attributes of Ghanaian traditional religions include the careful and separate treatment of human fecal matter from other human activities and environs, and the preservation and maintenance of biodiversity through avoidance of pollution of rivers and water bodies and sacred groves and forest reserves.

The democratic deficit at the local government level is really a big source of this problem of poor quality of environmental sanitation especially in public open spaces in Ghana in the modern era.

Direct election of Mayors and DCEs, as is done in many countries such as Australia, Senegal, South Africa, South Korea and United States, is more likely to lead to improved environmental sanitation in Ghana as the local people will hold elected officials directly accountable for their actions in addressing the acute environmental sanitation problems in their areas.

Non-elected DCEs and Mayors in Ghana put greater emphasis on activities related to the permanent electioneering campaign of the ruling party and the National Government, as compared to those that greatly improve the lives of people.

Activities of the unelected DCEs and Mayors are geared towards a never-ending national electioneering campaign to get the ruling party and its Presidential candidate elected at the national level rather than helping to solve acute local problems.

The acute problems of many local development areas in Ghana include improper disposal of both solid and liquid wastes, irregular and/or non-existent collection of solid wastes, the lack of development of basic sanitation facilities in public areas, extensive open urination and defecation in many public spaces, and the inadequate provision of basic health facilities and ambulance services.

The national political system in Ghana during the Fourth Republican era (1993 to 2018) has developed into a two-party zero-sum game, intensely contested by the political class elites, using the two main political parties as the opposing electoral vehicles.

The political class elites in Ghana are dominated by people from about seven or eight powerful social/ethnic groups out of the identifiable 100 social/ethnic groups in the country.

The highly-intense struggle for political power by the political class elites in Ghana is linked to the spoils of victory of national presidential election that rewards people through an extensive patronage system.

The spoils of victory in the national presidential system in Ghana include the management of a national system involving government expenditures of about US$15 billion each year or US$60 billion for the entire four-year presidential governance system especially in the award and procurement of government-financed projects.

The spoils of victory also include the management of national assets of the State worth hundreds of billions United States dollars in the forms of houses, land, forest reserves, vehicles, foreign reserves and others.

The spoils of victory in the national presidential election also include the over 2,000 direct Presidential appointments and thousands of appointments in the local and international arena including holders of foreign scholarships, ambassadors and international appointments linked to the approval of the Executive President.

With the President of Republic having the power to appoint and fire DCEs and Mayors at will, coupled with the attraction of the benefits from the extensive patronage system, the unelected DCEs and Mayors are more tied to the wishes of the Executive President and the ruling political party, and less to the needs of the local people.

The zero-sum-game national political system also greatly reinforces the zero-sum-game system at the local level that discourages individual or personal initiative in mobilising the community to tackle the immense environmental sanitation problem of local areas.

The zero-sum-game local system makes private individual initiative at mobilising the community to tackle local sanitation problems risk-inefficient due to its risk-increasing and income-decreasing nature of such an action.

As such, private individuals' initiatives will be limited and less than what is optimally required by society due to the rapidly increasing marginal cost (supply) of such actions beyond a certain point.

A directly-elected DCE or Mayor offers a clearer and more viable chance to mobilize effectively community resources to improve the environmental sanitation quality of a local area.

Direction election of Mayors and DCEs reinforces the well known axiom that environmental sanitation quality maintenance, especially of open public spaces, is largely a local public good to be entrusted to popularly-elected local leaders and representatives for effective management.

There is an urgent need to allow the proper functioning of local government through directly-elected representatives to address the environmental sanitation problem in Ghana.

The severe environmental sanitation problem in Ghana is exacerbated by the high population growth with the population doubling every 28 years; the current population is 30 million (July 2018 estimate) up from 6.2 million in 1957 when Ghana achieved its political independence and 24.7 million in 2010.

The poor quality of environmental sanitation in Ghana, often characterized by choked gutters and extensive flooding during the rainy seasons in many parts of the country, also leads to the persistence of acute human diseases such as malaria, cholera and typhoid, and many other diseases throughout the country.

These diseases account for about 70% of all outpatient cases in the country; they threaten the economic sustainability of the National Health Insurance System, and long-term sustainable economic growth of the country.

Another important economic sector affected by the poor environmental sanitation in Ghana is the tourism industry. Despite the excellent aesthetic and natural attributes of many tourist sites in the country, their patronage is not encouraging partly due to lack of and/or inadequate modern toilet facilities around these tourist sites.

Other aspects of the economy of Ghana affected by poor environmental sanitation include town and village farmer market centres which often lack modern sanitation facilities.

Further, the majority of the 30,000 kindergarten, primary schools and junior high schools do not have adequate toilet and sanitation facilities.

The environmental sanitation quality problem of market centres and primary and junior high schools falls directly under the governance of District Assemblies or Councils.

Similarly, the collection of solid wastes also falls under District Assemblies or Councils. These problems could be properly addressed through directly-elected local government leaders.

MORE HISTORICAL PROFILE INFORMATION ABOUT AGONA NSABA

AGONA NSABA BECAME AN ESTABLISHED TOWN AROUND EARLY 1500 AD AND THE PARAMOUNT CHIEFTAINCY SEAT OF THE AGONA PEOPLE OF GHANA IN 1693 AD AFTER THE VOLUNTARY AMALGAMATION OF A DOZEN AGONA TOWNS.

THE PARAMOUNTCY LASTED FROM 1693 TO 1935. THE PARAMOUNTCY SEAT WAS RESTORED IN 1958 BY AN ACT OF GHANAIAN PARLIAMENT AFTER ITS ABOLITION BY THE BRITISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT IN 1935.

THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT HAD WANTED TO ABOLISH THE AGONA NSABA PARAMOUNTCY SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR IN 1914 AD OVER FEAR OF GERMAN MISSIONARY INFLUENCES AND GERMAN MILITARY SPYING FROM AGONA NSABA.

AGONA NSABA WAS A VERY STRONG GERMAN MISSIONARY POST IN THE DENSE TROPICAL FORESTS OF GHANA WITH RADIO LINKS TO GERMAN MISSIONARY POSTS IN CAMEROON, A FORMER GERMAN COLONY.

AT THE START OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN 1939 AD, BRITISH MILITARY INTELLIGENCE AGENTS CAME TO AGONA NSABA TO FORCEFULLY REMOVE ALL GERMAN-RELATED CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES AND THEIR CHILDREN FROM THE TOWN. THIS IS BASED ON LOCAL CITIZENS' EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS.

THE AGONA STATE AND AGONA NSABA WERE CONQUERED BY THE AKWAMU KINGDOM IN 1689. THE AGONA STATE REGAINED ITS INDEPENDENCE FROM AKWAMU AFTER THE DEFEAT OF THE AKWAMUS IN 1730.

THE DEFEAT OF THE AKWAMUS IN 1730 WAS BASED ON AN ALLIANCE OF AKWAMU VASSAL STATES OF AGONA, AKUAPIM, AKYEM, GA AND GUAN-AKUAMPIM STATES.

THE AGONA SOLDIERS IN THIS MILITARY ALLIANCE CAPTURED THE PRIZED AKWAMU TOWN OF ASAMANKESE IN 1730. ASAMANKESE WHICH WAS THEN THE BIGGEST AKWAMU TOWN WAS FOUNDED BY KING ASARE.

AGONA NSABA IS CURRENTLY THE CAPITAL OF THE AGONA EAST DISTRICT RE-CREATED IN 2008. THE POPULATION OF THE TOWN WAS ESTIMATED TO BE 15,000 IN JUNE 2018.

IT WAS THE CAPITAL OF THE AGONAMAN LOCAL COUNCIL ESTABLISHED IN 1962. THE AGONAMAN LOCAL COUNCIL WAS ABOLISHED IN 1971 DURING THE SECOND REPUBLIC OF GHANA WHICH LASTED FROM OCTOBER 1969 TO JANUARY 1972.

THIS ABOLITION WAS CONFIRMED DURING THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT REFORM OF 1988 WHICH REDUCED THE NUMBER OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN GHANA FROM 140 TO 110 AND THE REFORM INVOLVED THE ABOLITION OF TWO OF THREE AGONA LOCAL COUNCILS (AGONAMAN AND AGONA NYAKROM/NKUM URBAN COUNCIL)

THE EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF SWITZERLAND AND GERMANY (BASEL MISSIONARIES) ESTABLISHED THE FIRST CHURCH AT AGONA NSABA IN 1890 AFTER ACQUIRING LAND FROM PARAMOUNT CHIEF NANA KOFI KONTOH IN 1884.

THE SALEM WARD AT AGONA NSABA IS ONE OF THE LARGEST CONTIGIOUS RELIGIOUS EXCLUSION ZONES BY LAND AREA IN GHANA AND AFRICA.

THE SALEM WARD IS ABOUT ONE-HALF (43%) OF THE LAND AREA OF VATICAN CITY (0.44 SQUARE KILOMETRE), THE SEAT OF THE WORLD WIDE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, WHICH IS ALSO RECOGNISED AS A SEPARATE NATION STATE BY OVER 200 GOVERNMENTS.

BASED ON THE 2000 AND 2010 POPULATION CENSUSES, THE AGONA PEOPLE ARE AMONG THE 42 SMALL ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS IN GHANA WHICH TOGETHER ACCOUNT FOR ABOUT 24% OF THE POPULATION.

THERE IS A GENERAL CONSENSUS AMONG SCIENTISTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS IN EAST AFRICA AS TALKING APES (HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS SPECIES) BETWEEN 100,000 TO 200,000 YEARS AGO.

HENCE THE AGONA PEOPLE MIGRATED TO PRESENT DAY GHANA FROM EAST AFRICA THROUGH ANCIENT EMPIRE OF EGYPT, THE ANCIENT EMPIRE OF GHANA (WESTERN SUDAN), AND THE ANCIENT BONO AND AKWAMU KINGDOMS IN PRESENT DAY GHANA.


SUMMARY INFORMATION OF THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF AGONA NSABA TOWARDS THE ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIANITY AND EDUCATION IN GHANA FROM 1884 TO THE PRESENT BASED ON GHANAIAN, BRITISH, SWISS AND GERMAN ARCHIVAL RECORDS.

IN 1884, A 37-ACRE LAND FOR THE NSABA CHURCH WAS ACQUIRED FROM THE OMANHENE OF AGONA STATE BASED AT NSABA, NANA KOFI KONTOH BY THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES BELONGING TO THE EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF SWITZERLAND AND GERMANY.

AN ADDITIONAL 10.2 ACRES OF LAND WAS DONATED TO THE LOCAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH BY THE AGONA NSABA TRADITIONAL COUNCIL IN 2005 MAKING IT A TOTAL OF 47.2 ACRES POSSESSION OF THE LOCAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

THE ORIGINAL 37-ACRE LAND WAS THE HOME OF KEY DEITIES AND SPIRITS OF THE AGONA STATE BASED AT NSABA. HENCE THE DONATION OF THE LAND REQUIRED THE RELOCATION THESE DEITIES FROM THE CURRENT AREA CALLED SALEM WARD.

THE LEGENDS ALSO INDICATED THAT THESE DEITIES HAD ASSISTED THE AGONA PEOPLE TO DEFEAT KING OFORI PANIN AND HIS AKYEM ARMY WHO INVADED THE AGONA STATE IN 1701 AND WAS DEFEATED AT BOTH NSABA AND KWANYAKO; AND LATER TO STOP ANOTHER INVASION BY KING KOFI KARIKARI AND HIS ASANTE ARMY UNDER GENERAL OPOKU FOFIE IN 1873. BOTH INVADING ARMIES SUFFERED THEIR DEFEATS AT NSABA AND KWANYAKO.

THE UNCLE OF THE OMANHENE OF AGONA STATE (NANA KOFI KONTOH; SHOWN IN PICTURE 4 BELOW) WHO DONATED THE LAND TO THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES IN 1884, TOGETHER WITH 16 OTHER NEAR-COASTAL AND COASTAL STATES IN THE THEN GOLD COAST (NOW GHANA), SIGNED THE TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP WITH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IN 1844, EXACTLY 40 YEARS BEFORE THE 1884 AGREEMENT TO HAND OVER 37 ACRES OF LAND TO THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES.

IT WAS A VERY DIFFICULT DECISION OF THE OMANHENE OF THE AGONA STATE (NANA KOFI KONTOH) TO RELOCATE THE SYMBOLS OF DEITIES OF HIS ANCESTORS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF WHAT WAS A FOREIGN RELIGION BY GIVING UP 37-ACRE OF HIS STATE'S PRIME LAND VOLUNTARILY TO THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES IN 1884.

FURTHER, THE ORACLES OF THE DEITIES HAD WARNED THE OMANHENE THAT SEVERAL CLAN ELDERS OF THE OYOKO CLAN WOULD DIE IF THE LAND WAS GIVEN TO THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES TO ESTABLISH THEIR RELIGION.

AFTER SEVERAL FRUITLESS ATTEMPTS IN THE 1870s AND 1880s IN SEARCH OF LAND ELSEWHERE IN THE THEN DENSE TROPICAL FORESTS OF THE GOLD COAST TO ESTABLISH THEIR MISSIONARY OUTPOST, THE BASEL MISSIONARIES RETURNED TO NSABA IN 1884 AND PASSIONATELY PLEADED FOR LAND TO ESTABLISH THEIR MISSIONARY OUTPOST WITH THE PROMISE OF TURNING NSABA INTO A MAJOR EDUCATIONAL AND RELIGIOUS CENTRE.

THE OYOKO CLAN ELDERS AND CHIEFS WHO ACTUALLY OWNED THE 37-ACRE LAND SEEING THE PROSPECT OF MODERN EDUCATION FOR THEIR PEOPLE DECIDED THAT THEY WERE PREPARED TO DIE IF THE DEITIES CHOSE TO DO SO AND GAVE THE LAND TO THE OMANHENE TO GIVE IT TO THE BASEL MISSIONARIES TO ESTABLISH THEIR OUTPOST.

THIS DECISION ALLOWED THE BASEL MISSIONARIES TO ESTABLISH THEIR CHURCH AT NSABA AND EXPAND THEIR ACTIVITIES VERY QUICKLY IN THE EASTERN, CENTRAL AND WESTERN REGIONS OF GHANA.

THE CURRENT PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF GHANA WAS FOUNDED IN 1922 AS THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF THE GOLD COAST BY THE REMNANTS OF THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL EVANGELICAL MISSIONARY CHURCH. THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES WERE EXPELLED FROM THE GOLD COAST BY THE BRITISH COLONIAL AUTHORITY IN 1917 DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR.

THE FIVE MAJOR BASEL MISSIONARY CHURCHES WHICH CONSTITUTED THE ORIGINAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF THE GOLD COAST IN 1922 (NOW THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF GHANA) WERE THE AKUAPEM CHURCH, THE AGONA NSABA CHURCH, GA CHURCH, THE KWAHU CHURCH (BASED AT ABETIFI) AND THE ASANTE CHURCH BASED IN KUMASI.

THE NSABA BASEL MISSIONARY CHURCH ESTABLISHED IN 1884 DIRECTLY CREATED THE CENTRAL, WEST AKYEM AND WESTERN GHANA REGIONAL PRESBYTERIES, THREE OF THE CURRENT 17 REGIONAL PRESBYTERIES OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF GHANA.

THE SALEM AREA AT NSABA HAS BEEN A RELIGIOUS EXCLUSION ZONE RESERVED FOR RESIDENCE BY ONLY CHURCH MEMBERS SINCE 1884. THE SALEM WARD IS ALSO ONE OF THE LARGEST AND OLDEST CONTIGOUS RELIGIOUS EXCLUSION ZONES IN GHANA AND WEST AFRICA.

THE BASEL MISSIONARIES FORMALLY ESTABLISHED A RESIDENTIAL OUTPOST AT NSABA IN 1890 WITH MR. W. ROMAN AS THE FIRST RESIDENT MISSIONARY. THE FIRST MODERN CHAPEL WAS BUILT IN 1894.

THE NSABA CHURCH WAS THE SECOND MOST IMPORTANT MISSIONARY OUTPOST OF THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES IN GHANA IN THE 19TH AND EARLY PART OF THE 20TH CENTURY BEFORE THEIR EXPULSION BY THE BRITISH COLONIAL AUTHORITIES IN 1917. THE NSABA CHURCH WAS CONSIDERED THE FAVOURITE OF THE BASEL MISSIONARIES ACCORDING TO THE AUTHOR OF CHRISTIANITY IN GHANA, MR. DEBRUNNER.

IT WAS THE NSABA CHURCH LED BY ITS PASTOR WHICH PETITIONED THE BRITISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT IN LONDON FOR THE RETURN OF GERMAN-SPEAKING CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES (BOTH FROM SWITZERLAND AND GERMANY) AFTER THE END OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR. THESE GERMAN-SPEAKING MISSIONARIES RETURNED TO GHANA IN 1935 INCLUDING NSABA AND WERE AGAIN EXPELLED BY THE BRITISH COLONIAL AUTHORITIES BEFORE THE START OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

THE BRITISH COLONIAL AUTHORITY EXPELLED CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES OF GERMAN DESCENT FEARING THAT THEY COULD BE SPIES FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF GERMANY. IN ADDITION, BECAUSE THE NSABA CHURCH HAD DIRECTLY APPEALED TO THE COLONIAL AUTHORITY IN LONDON FOR THE RETURN OF SWISS-GERMAN MISSIONARIES TO THE GOLD COAST IN 1929, THE BRITISH COLONIAL AUTHORITY TRIGGERED DISAFFECTION AMONG THE AGONA PEOPLE AGAINST THE OMANHENE OF AGONA STATE BASED AT NSABA.

IN 1935, THE BRITISH COLONIAL AUTHORITY DECREED THE DEMOTION AND ABOLITION OF THE AGONA PARAMOUNTCY SEAT AT NSABA. IT WAS UNTIL 1958 AFTER GHANA HAD GAINED INDEPEDENCE THAT PARLIAMENT ENACTED A LAW TO RETURN THE AGONA PARAMOUNTCY TO NSABA.

THIS OCCURRED AFTER A PERIOD OF NEGOTIATION WITH DR. KWAME NKRUMAH AND THE CONVENTION PEOPLE'S PARTY (CPP) FROM 1951 TO 1956 WHEN THERE WAS LIMITED SELF-RULE BY CPP UNDER THE BRITISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT.

AGONA NSABA HAS BEEN A CONTINUOUS PIVOTAL POINT FOR THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY IN GHANA AND AFRICA, THE SPREAD OF MODERN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN GHANA AND THE EDUCATION OF THOUSANDS OF LEADERS IN GHANA INCLUDING SEVERAL GOVERNMENT MINISTERS.

CURRENTLY THE SALEM RESIDENTIAL WARD CONTAINS THE TWO-ACRE FENCED NEW CHAPEL WITH MODERN TOILET FACILITY, THE OLD CHAPEL BUILT IN 1894, THE TWO-ACRE PRESBYTERY OFFICE AND LAY TRAINING CENTRE ORIGINALLY BUILT IN 1894 AND A TWO-ACRE DURBAR GROUND.

OTHER AMENITIES AND ASSETS IN THE SALEM WARD INCLUDE A CRECHE, A KINDERGARTEN, A PRIMARY SCHOOL, A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, A SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, AN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) CENTRE, OVER ONE HUNDRED MODERN AND RENOVATED PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL HOUSES, SEVERAL PLANNED AND TARRED STREETS, TWO SCHOOL PARKS AND THREE POLLING STATIONS OF THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION OF GHANA USED FOR DISTRICT ASSEMBLY AND NATIONAL ELECTIONS. ON A TYPICAL DAY, ABOUT 4,000 STUDENTS ATTEND SCHOOL IN THE SALEM WARD.

FROM 1940 TO 1990, THE AGONA AREA INCLUDING NSABA WAS THE FOURTH LARGEST COCOA PRODUCING DISTRICT IN GHANA. IT WAS MAINLY THE COCOA REVENUES THAT WERE USED BY THE STATE OF GHANA TO DEVELOP BASIC SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURE AND OTHER INFRASTRUCTURAL WORKS OF THE COUNTRY.






OUTPUT OF SUBPROJECTS 1 AND 2 OF THE PHASE 5 OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS ARE SHOWN ABOVE: THE MODERN TOILET FACILITY AND URINAL FOR THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NSABA, GHANA COMPLETED IN APRIL 2011 AND USED DURING THE CONVENTION OF THE CENTRAL PRESBYTERY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF GHANA AT NSABA, 6-9 APRIL 2011.

THE TOTAL COSTS OF THE TWO SUBPROJECTS WERE 11,716 GHANA CEDIS OR 7,864 UNITED STATES DOLLARS OR 8,118 AUSTRALIAN DOLLARS. THESE WERE COMPLETED WITHIN 14 WEEKS FROM 28 DECEMBER 2010 TO 5 APRIL 2011.


OUTPUT OF THE SUBPROJECT 3 OF THE PHASE 5 OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS IS SHOWN BELOW IN THE PICTURE. THIS SUBPROJECT WAS THE SUPPLY OF PIPE BORNE WATER TO THE MOSQUE OF THE NSABA ISLAMIC COMMUNITY WHICH WAS COMPLETED IN AUGUST 2011. THE PICTURE SHOWS THE INSTALLED WATER TANK AND THE PIPE STAND FROM THE COMPLETED SUBPROJECT. THE SMALL BLUE AND GREEN CONTAINERS, BETWEEN THE INSTALLED WATER TANK AND THE PIPE STAND, WERE USED TO COLLECT RAIN WATER FOR USE BY WORSHIPPERS BEFORE THE COMPLETION OF THE SUBPROJECT. WITH THE COMPLETION OF THE SUBPROJECT IN AUGUST 2011, PIPE BORNE WATER FROM GHANA WATER COMPANY IS BEING USED BY WORSHIPPERS. THE TOTAL COSTS OF THIS SUBPROJECT WERE 1595 GHANA CEDIS OR 1071 UNITED STATES DOLLARS OR 1082 AUSTRALIAN DOLLARS.





THE MISSION OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS IS TO IMPROVE THE LIVING STANDARDS OF PEOPLE AT NSABA, GHANA THROUGH COST-EFFECTIVE AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PROJECTS FOR LOCAL COMMUNITY SCHOOLS, CHURCHES AND OTHER RELIGIOUS CENTRES, NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS AND TRADITIONAL CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS.

THE ECONOMIC RATIONALE OF THE PROJECTS IS BASED ON THE CONCEPT THAT SMALL TOWN-BASED COMMUNITY PROJECTS DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH MARKET FAILURE RELATED TO POVERTY AND LOW INCOMES OF INDIVIDUALS AND EXTENSIVE GOVERNMENT FAILURE IN THE PROVISION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND WATER SERVICES FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES. MORE DETAILS OF THE ECONOMIC RATIONALE FOR USING COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS ARE FOUND IN SECTION 2 BELOW.

THE EXTENSIVE GOVERNMENT FAILURE IN THE PROVISION OF WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES IS THE DIRECT RESULT OF CENTRAL PLANNING, EXCESSIVE CENTRALISATION OF GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN THE CAPITAL CITY, RENT-SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS, GENERAL BUREAUCRATIC INEFFICIENCY AND LIMITED USE OF ECONOMIC OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUES IN GOVERNMENT OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES.

A SOURCE OF GOVERNMENT FAILURE IS THE OVERINVOICING OF COSTS BY SOME CONTRACTORS AND RELATED SHODDY WORKS BY THESE CONTRACTORS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE POOR STATE OF MANY PUBLIC AND SCHOOL TOILET FACILITIES BUILT UNDER THE HIGHLY INDEBTED POOR COUNTRY (HIPC) GOVERNMENT/MULTILATERAL DONOR SCHEME DURING THE FIRST DECADE OF THE 21ST CENTURY.

ANOTHER SOURCE OF GOVERNMENT FAILURE IS THE NON-ELECTED MAYORS WHO ARE APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT OF GHANA AND ARE THEREFORE NOT ANSWERABLE TO THE PEOPLE OF THEIR COMMUNITIES BUT RATHER TO THE ELITES OF THE RULING POLITICAL PARTY.

FURTHER, THE FAILURE OF GOVERNMENTS OVER THE LAST 30 YEARS IN EFFECTIVELY MOBILISING COMMUNAL LABOUR AS A FORM OF COST SHARING HAS CONTRIBUTED TO VERY HIGH COSTS OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS. THERE IS THIS WIDESPREAD EXPECTATION FROM PEOPLE FOR MORE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS TO BE DELIVERED BY GOVERNMENTS WITHOUT THEIR DIRECT CONTRIBUTIONS EITHER WITH MONEY OR IN KIND. THIS EXPECTATION WAS CLEARLY ABSENT FROM THE POPULATION IN THE 1950s AND 1960s WHEN COMMUNAL LABOUR MOBILISATION WAS A KEY DRIVING FORCE OF MANY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY.

MANY PEOPLE EXPECT TO GET THINGS WITHOUT PAYING FOR THEM DIRECTLY OR IN KIND. THIS PERPETUATES A SYNDROME OF INCREASED ENIVRONMENTAL DEGRADATION THROUGH ABUSE AND EXCESSIVE USE OF COMMUNAL AND SOCIETAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSETS, SUCH AS RIVERS, LAKES AND FORESTS, AND NON-ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC PROPERTY AS THESE ARE TREATED AS "FREE" GOODS WITH ZERO MARKET PRICES. CURRENTLY, IT IS ESTIMATED THAT ONLY 8 PER CENT OF THE ORIGINAL TROPICAL FORESTS IN GHANA REMAIN.

GOVERNMENT FAILURE OVER THE LAST 30 YEARS IN THE AREA OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION IS THE MAJOR REASON FOR THE VERY LOW INTERNATIONAL RANKING OF GHANA IN ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION.

GIVEN THE FAILURE OF GOVERNMENT, COMMUNITY PROJECTS IN WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION ARE AN IMPORTANT INTERFACE BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL MARKET-BASED ACTIVITIES AND GOVERNMENT PROJECTS IN LOCAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE TO REDUCE OCCURRENCE OF WATER-BORNE DISEASES SUCH AS MALARIA, TYPHOID, CHOLERA, DYSENTERY AND GUINEA WORM.


SUMMARY OF INPUTS FOR NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS PHASES 1 TO 5

THE TOTAL COSTS OF NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS PHASES 1 TO 5 COVERING THE PERIOD FROM AUGUST 1995 TO AUGUST 2011 WERE 55,500 UNITED STATES DOLLARS.

SOME OF THE MAJOR OUTPUTS OF NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PHASES 1 TO 5 PROJECTS WERE:

1. CONSTRUCTION OF FIVE MODERN TOILET FACILITIES FOR FOUR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT NSABA. THE TOILET FACILITY FOR THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, WHICH INCLUDED A TWO-ROOM FOUR-CHAMBER MODERN URINAL, WAS COMPLETED IN APRIL 2011. THE FACILITIES FOR THE FOUR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS WERE COMPLETED IN 2000, 2002, 2004 AND 2008.

2. SUPPLY OF PIPE BORNE WATER TO 11 PUBLIC SCHOOLS THROUGH THE LAYING OF ABOUT FOUR KILOMETRES OF PIPELINE PASSING THROUGH SEVERAL SUBURBS OF THE TOWN UNDERTAKEN STARTING IN DECEMBER 1995 AND COMPLETED IN JUNE 1998 WHICH CREATED POSITIVE EXTERNAL EFFECTS WITH OVER 20 INDIVIDUAL HOMES CONNECTED TO THE PIPELINE SYSTEM.

3. SUPPLY OF PIPE BORNE WATER TO THE HOMES OF THREE TRADITIONAL AND FAITH-BASED HEALERS IN 1998 AND 2011.

4. SUPPLY OF PIPE BORNE WATER TO THE MOSQUE OR PRAYER CENTRE OF THE ISLAMIC COMMUNITY IN THE ZONGO WARD IN AUGUST 2011.

5. SUPPLY OF PIPE BORNE WATER TO TWO SUBURBS FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 2008 AND 2010. THE SUBURBS ARE PEPRAKROM WARD AND FREETOWN WARD. THE PEPRAKROM WARD WATER SUPPLY WAS FITTED WITH AN OVERHEAD WATER TANK.

6. SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY TO NORTH SALEM WARD IN AUGUST 1996 THROUGH A CONTRACT WITH ELECTRICITY COMPANY OF GHANA FOR ERECTION OF THREE ELECTRICITY POLES AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES.

7. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR URGENT REPAIRS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000 AND 2003.

8. CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE NEW BUILDINGS FOR THE NSABA PRESBYTERIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL. IN 1998, THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS CONTRIBUTED OVER 1,300 AUSTRALIAN DOLLARS TOWARDS THIS PROJECT.

THE MAJOR OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS OF NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

A MAJOR OUTCOME OF THE PROJECTS HAS BEEN THE VISUAL AND REAL IMPROVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION AND INCREASED ACCESS OF STUDENTS AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC TO IMPROVED WATER SUPPLY.

FOR EXAMPLE, THERE HAS BEEN A CHANGED BEHAVIOUR IN THE ELIMINATION OF OPEN DEFEACATION IN THE BUSH AREA AND OPEN SPACE AROUND SCHOOLS.

THERE HAS ALSO BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE USE OF TREATED WATER BY STUDENTS DURING THE SCHOOL SEASON. THIS INCREASED USE OF TREATED WATER HAS ALSO BEEN OBSERVED FOR ADHERENTS OF CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM AND TRADITIONAL RELIGIONS IN THE TOWN.

ANOTHER MAJOR OUTCOME OF THESE PROJECTS IS THE REPLICATION OF CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN PUBLIC TOILET FACILITIES BY CHURCHES AND DISTRICT ASSEMBLY (LOCAL GOVERNMENT) NOT ONLY AT NSABA BUT IN OTHER PARTS OF THE DISTRICT.

THE NSABA METHODIST CHURCH HAS COMPLETED A SIX-ROOM TOILET FACILITY AND URINAL FOR ITS MEMBERS AND CHURCH ELDERS VISITED THE NSABA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH TOILET FACILITIES SHOWN ABOVE TO STUDY THE CONCEPT FOR ADOPTION BY THEIR CHURCH.

FURTHER, IN DECEMBER 2010, THE AGONA EAST DISTRICT ASSEMBLY CONSTRUCTED A TOILET FACILITY IN THE FREETOWN WARD NEAR THE METHODIST SCHOOLS FOR RESIDENTS LIVING IN THE AREA.

IN DECEMBER 2011, THE WASH NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION COMPLETED THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SIX-CHAMBER TOILET FACILITY FOR THE AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPICAL (AME) ZION SCHOOLS AT NSABA MODELLED ON THE FACILITY CONSTRUCTED FOR THE NSABA ISLAMIC SCHOOLS IN 2008.

ALSO IN DECEMBER 2012, THE GHANA EDUCATION TRUST FUND COMPLETED THE RECONSTRUCTION OF A NEW BUILDING BLOCK FOR THE NSABA PRESBYTERIAN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, THE SCHOOL THAT WAS ORIGINALLY FOUNDED IN 1900.

FOLLOWING APPEAL FROM THE COORDINATOR OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS AND OTHER CITIZENS OF NSAGA, A MODERN WATER CLOSET TOILET FACILITY WAS BUILT ATTACHED TO THE NEW SCHOOL BUILDING BLOCK INSTEAD OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN OF A PIT LATRINE.

MORE INFORMATION ON NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS ARE PROVIDED BELOW.


1. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS PHASES 1 TO 5 (AUGUST 1995 TO AUGUST 2011)

From August 1995 to August 2011, over this 16-year period, I spent part of my vacation period coordinating community development projects at Nsaba, Ghana. The first three months from mid-August to mid-November 1995 were spent primarily to search for potential donors. In mid-November 1995, a few individuals donated some money and together with the group donation of the Uniting Church, Chester Street, Epping, Sydney, Australia (my Church) in the third week of November 1995, we were able to finance our initial work on community development project at Nsaba in early December 1995 during my two-month vacation period (December 1995 and January 1996).

In general, the coordination of community project involved raising funds from individual, church and school sources in Australia for activities at Nsaba. Funds raised are released to local co-ordinators for various activities. Observers worked with local co-ordinators to ensure that monies were properly used. Personal monitoring of project activities was undertaken with exchange of communication with coordinators and observers through electronic and postal mails and bi-annual visits to Nsaba during vacation periods. Phase 1 was implemented from November 1995 to August 1996 and Phase 2 was implemented from January to June 1998. Implementation of Phase 3 started in 1999 and was completed in June 2004.

Phase 4 started in January 2005 and was completed in November 2008. Phase 4 had several components. The first component dealt with the execution of “private projects” that had large public externalities. These private projects included the construction of 0.6 kilometre pipe line and the supply of electricity based on the erection of six electricity poles in the Freetown suburb of the town. These opened the way for new and old residents of the suburb to tap into water and electricity supply from the national systems. The second component was the adjustment and strengthening of the first three phases through activities such as repair and upgrading of pipeline and conversion of fixed monthly water charging to one based on use of water-measuring metres. The third component involved the construction of a toilet facility for the Nsaba Islamic Junior Secondary School together with the Nsaba Islamic Community.

The Phase 5 of this special development project started in 2010 with fund-raising activities in June 2010 and is being completed in August 2011. The major components of this phase were the construction of a three-room modern water closet toilet facility and urinal for the Nsaba Presbyterian Church and the connection of pipe borne water supply to the Mosque of the Nsaba Islamic Community.

The outputs of Phases 1 and 2 projects, which cost or 1,757 Ghana cedis (GHS), 14,252 Australian dollars (A$) or 9,652 United States dollars (US$) included the supply of pipe borne water to 11 public schools and centres; partial renovation and upgrading of buildings and facilities of 15 public schools, composting of biodegradable solid wastes undertaken in several public schools; supply of electricity to a residential area (North Salem Ward) through connection to the national electricity grid, benefiting directly about 200 householders and supply of pipe borne water to the home of a traditional healer and birth attendant, who is the President of the Local Association of Traditional Healers, Herbalists and Birth Attendants. The supply of pipe borne water to the traditional healer was meant to improve the hygienic status of her home environment and to allow her to use treated water for mixing of herbal medicines that are given to patients instead of relying on polluted water from nearby streams.

The outputs of Phase 3 project, which cost GHS12,582 or A$32,054 or US$20,389, included two five-room modern water closet toilet facilities each linked to a 500-gallon overhead water storage tank for the Presbyterian Junior Secondary School established in 1900 and the Methodist Junior Secondary School established in 1953, a seven-room modern water closet toilet facility also linked to a 1000-gallon storage tank for the Roman Catholic Junior Secondary School established in 1965, renovation of a water closet toilet facility of the female hostel of Nsaba Senior Secondary School, assistance towards the completion of the original three-class room block of the Islamic Junior Secondary School, the fourth junior secondary school at Nsaba, which was built by the Nsaba Muslim Community, partial renovation of buildings of several schools and construction of a room as office for the African Methodist Episcopical (AME) Zion Primary School, which was converted as a classroom for the AME Zion Kindergarten. A 100-dollar donation from a donor living in the United States in 2004 was used to support the renovation of the Nsaba community centre which used to be the old Agonaman Local Council building during the First Republic. The centre was converted back to be the headquarters of the Agona East District Council in 2008.

The outputs from Phase 4 included the extension of electricity through the national electricity grid, supply of pipe borne water and the installation of four street lights in the South and East Freetown suburbs of Nsaba. In August 2006, pipe borne water was also extended to the Peprakrom suburb of the town benefiting about 500 residents living near the two Roman Catholic Schools. The third component of Phase 4 was the construction of a modern toilet facility for the Islamic Junior Secondary School costing about 5,300 US dollars completed in July 2008. The total costs of Phase 4 project were GHS12,947 or A$15,202 or US$13,186.

The outputs of Phase 5 project were (1) the construction of a three-room modern water closet toilet facility for the Nsaba Presbyterian Church (2) the construction of a modern two-room four-chamber urinal for the Nsaba Presbyterian Church adjacent to the new toilet facility (3) supply of pipe borne water including water storage tank to the Mosque of the Islamic Community at Nsaba (4) the repair and adjustments to facilities constructed during the first four phases of the project (5) supply of pipe borne water to the Freetown ward of the town using the Methodist Junior Secondary School water metre and water storage tank to sell water at commercial rates to Freetown residents in order to pay the water bills of the Methodist Junior Secondary School (6) supply of pipe borne water to Peprakrom Ward through the water metre and water storage tank of the Catholic Junior Secondary School in order to pay the water bills of the Catholic Junior Secondary School and (7) supply of water to the homes of two traditional and faith-based healers.

The total costs of Phase 5 project were GHS18,203 or A$12,657 or US$12,273.

The total costs of all the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects (Phases 1 to 5) were GHS45,489 or A$74,166 or US$55,500. These costs were financed by individual and institutional donors from Australia (GHS29,594; A$52,870; US$38,445; 71.3%), local beneficiaries (GHS9,562; A$10,891; US$9,050; 14.7%) and my nuclear family (GHS6,333; A$10,405; US$8,005; 14.0%).

THE 25 INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP FINANCIAL SPONSORS OF THE NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY PROJECTS FROM 1995 TO 2011 WITH CONTRIBUTIONS IN AUSTRALIAN DOLLARS (A$) AND THEIR PROPORTIONS OF TOTAL FINANCING COSTS OF THE PROJECTS ARE LISTED BELOW.

1. Knox Grammar School, Wahroonga, Sydney, Australia; A$17,268.00; 23.28 per cent.

2. Sydney, Australia Family Contributors Wishing to Remain Anonymous; A$12,266.31; 16.54 per cent.

3. Local Nsaba, Ghana Beneficiaries; A$10,891.45; 14.69 per cent.

4. Dr. Kwabena A. Anaman and Family; A$10,314.21; 14.03 per cent.

5. Congregation and Members of the Uniting Church, Epping, Sydney, Australia; A$8,739.20; 11.78 per cent.

6. Saint Ignatius College Riverview, Sydney, Australia; A$3,000.00; 4.04 per cent.

7. Scots College, Bellevue, Sydney, Australia; A$1,960.00; 2.64 per cent.

8. Saint Andrew Uniting Church, Longueville, Sydney, Australia; A$1,630.00; 2.20 per cent.

9. Santa Sabina Catholic Ladies College, Strathfield, Sydney, Australia; A$1,500.00; 2.02 per cent.

10. New South Wales Uniting Church in Australia Board of Mission, Sydney, Australia; A$1,000.00; 1.35 per cent.

11. Uniting Church in Sydney, Australia; A$1,000.00; 1.35 per cent.

12. Methodist Ladies College, Burwood, Sydney, Australia; A$753.30; 1.02 per cent.

13. Saint Michael's Roman Catholic Primary School, Lane Cove, Sydney, Australia; A$673.25; 0.91 per cent.

14. Ms Rashidah Jair, Kuala Belait, Brunei Darussalam, Southeast Asia; A$500.00; 0.67 per cent.

15. Uniting Church, Toowong, Brisbane, Australia; A$500.00; 0.67 per cent.

16. Australian Islamic College, Sydney, Australia; A$500.00; 0.67 per cent.

17. Mrs. Elva Bieler, Longueville Uniting Church, Sydney, Australia; A$400.00; 0.54 per cent.

18. Our Lady of Hope Christian Catholic Primary School, Epping, Sydney, Australia; A$330.50; 0.45 per cent.

18. North Sydney Presbytery of Uniting Church, Sydney, Australia; A$300.00; 0.40 per cent.

20. Professor William Glen Boggess, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States; A$149.93; 0.20 per cent;

21. Annandale Presbyterian Church, Sydney, Australia; A$136.80; 0.18 per cent.

22. Kirk Club, Presbyterian Church, Epping, Sydney, Australia; A$100.00; 0.13 per cent.

23. Dr. Michael Barhoun, Macquarie Centre Dental Clinic, North Ryde, Sydney, Australia; A$75.00; 0.10 per cent.

24. Professor Gabriel Ogunmokun, Perth, Australia; A$48.00; 0.06 per cent.

25. An Anonymous Cash Contributor, North Sydney, Australia; A$40.00; 0.05 per cent.

Total Cash Contributions; A$74,166.56; 100.00 per cent.



Cover page of Phase 1 report showing water supply to Presbyterian Primary School completed on 13 December 1995    




Cover page of Phase 2 report showing children of the Nsaba Islamic Primary School and Junior Secondary School admiring their new public stand pipe erected in June 1998




Cover page of the Phase 3 report showing in the background the seven-room modern water closet toilet facility for the Nsaba Roman Catholic Junior Secondary School completed in June 2004.

THIS SECTION OF THIS REPORT WAS FIRST DEVELOPED BY KWABENA A. ANAMAN IN 1991 WHEN THE AUTHOR WAS WORKING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA AT THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK, PORT MORESBY. IT WAS FURTHER REFINED AS A CONCEPT NOTE TO PROVIDE THE THEORETICAL PUSH FOR THE START OF IMPLEMENTATION OF NSABA GHANA COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN 1994. THE AUTHOR BENEFITED FROM DISCUSSIONS DURING HIS TWO-DAY PRIVATE RESEARCH VISIT TO THE BASEL MISSIONARIES HEADQUARTERS IN BASEL, SWITZERLAND IN SEPTEMBER 1994. THIS CONCEPT NOTE HAS BEEN REVISED SEVERAL TIMES WITH THE LATEST REVISION IN JULY 2011.


2. ECONOMIC RATIONALE FOR USING COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS AS AN IMPORTANT ENGINE TO ENSURE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA

Starting from the pre-colonial period to the present era, African societies have generally been driven by what I call the three main institutional “economic engines”. These three economic engines are the market (individuals), the traditional community and the state (government). These three institutional engines are described below beginning with the market.

A market exists when two or more people are engaged in an exchange of goods and services. This is predicated on the fact no one single human being can produce all the goods and services that he/she needs over an extended period of time. Thus a market is functioning when a person goes to a village store and buys produce for his/her family use. The market is also at work when a buyer purchases goods and services from a seller using telegraphic bank transfers even though the buyer and seller may not have ever seen each other. Economists, through research work in an attempt to understand human behaviour across cultures and times, have extended the concept of market to any interaction that involves an exchange between two or more human beings. Thus a market exists is functioning when two people engage in consensual sex in a closed location based on the laws of the land.

A theory lies behind the market system or process that allows the thousands of actions The theory underlying the market process is described by neo-classical economic theory which has evolved over the last 200 years. This process is underpinned by the behaviour of self-interested and self-centred human beings seeking to maximize their satisfaction from the production, distribution and exchange of goods and services subject to the availability of resources and technology. Neoclassical economic theory considers plant and non-human animal species as inputs or resources to be used to serve human needs. However since human beings are themselves inputs or resources used by other living things through death processes, the neoclassical economic theory that enshrine human beings as the centre of the philosophical basis of the earth and universe is questioned by many environmentalists including followers of African traditional religions.

Neoclassical economic theory though recognises that individual human beings are not “economic islands” because they live in a society of human beings. Hence interdependencies or externalities between and among individuals occur. Externalities result in what economists call "market failure". This simply means that the self-interested actions of individuals may not always lead to good outcomes for society. Under the situation of market failure, the market system fails to achieve the maximum interest of society. This failure is in general caused by a number of factors. Some of these factors that result in market failure are described below:

First, the cost of participation in certain markets by individuals, for example, starting certain businesses may be too high and thus effectively bars many people from participating in those markets. For example, in the case of Nsaba, even though the town had pipe borne water supply since 1965, it was only until 1998, with the implementation of our Phase 2 Special Community Development Project, that the outlying area around the Methodist and Roman Catholic Schools, which were over one kilometre from the centre of the town, was connected to the town pipe borne water supply system. Before 1998, both the market system and the state failed to supply water to the area. People living in the area relied on unsafe water. The market failed because no single individual came forward to connect pipe borne water supply from the centre of the town to his/her house which would have positive externality effects of bringing pipe borne water to other people and schools in the area. The state failed because the government did not have the means or did not consider it important to extend pipe borne water supply to the area to service the schools sited in that area.

Second, the market system also fails in the presence of racial, class, religious, gender discrimination and other barriers, and high artificial hurdles that prevent members of certain groups or classes from participating fully in economic activities in certain markets. With the Nsaba Special Community Development Projects, we incorporated all schools and students into the programme regardless of their religious status. In particular, special efforts were made to finance projects for Islamic schools at Nsaba even though all the overseas monies raised for the projects were contributed by Christians and other non-Muslims.

Traditional community organisations and institutions were developed and/or evolved to address some of the problems arising from market failure discussed above. The traditional community includes extended family, clan lineage, chieftaincy structures and traditional cultural and religious institutions. The traditional community concept can be expanded to include various religious organisations such as churches which perform some similar functions. The state evolved due to the failure of both the market and traditional community to address adequately certain needs of society especially in the areas of internal security, defence and external relationships with other states. During the pre-colonial period the size of the state was generally small in Africa. A notable exception was the Kingdom of Dahomey in present-day Republic of Benin. On the other hand, the Ibos of present day Nigeria organised their traditional societies with little formal state structures. The relatively small role of the state in ancient Africa appeared to have been driven by the relatively large role played in society by traditional community organisations. In the modern era, the state comprises of district, regional and central Governments.

The three institutional economic engines of the market, the traditional community and the state currently exist side by side in Africa. All three institutions have strengths and limitations in addressing problems of dynamically changing society in an era of globalisation and rapid environmental destruction. It can be argued that the relative neglect of the traditional community sector in the planning and implementation of structural adjustment programmes in Ghana since the early 1980s contributed to the large increases in poverty. Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) introduced in Africa are generally of the central planning variety often based on a fixed set of conditionalities. They tend to rely on economic models which assume that the market and the state are the only institutional economic engines of society.

Hence privatisation of many Government services was undertaken without adequate consultation with traditional community organisations especially those organisations which had previously run such services in the pre-colonial, colonial and post-independence periods. For example, traditional chieftaincy authorities maintained quasi-police service, carried out environmental protection activities and directly managed certain community assets. Various Christian Churches such as the Presbyterian Church built and ran schools and hospitals. Privatisation of Government services was also undertaken without any significant strengthening of traditional community organisations to handle some of the responsibilities abandoned by Government as a result of the diminution of the state mandated under the structural adjustment programmes. Widespread poverty increased as many individuals were suddenly left to fend for themselves.

The present challenge is to strengthen traditional community organisations such as youth groups, town development committees, traditional chieftaincy authorities, churches, other religious organisations and old boys’ and girls’ associations to enable them to participate directly in the economic development of their communities as complementary services delivery mechanisms. This participation is especially useful for small communities and towns where modest efforts by community organisations can make some real impact on the quality of life of people living in those areas. Some suggested initiatives that Government can take to strengthen community organisations to advance economic development in Ghana are discussed below.

First, the Central Government can donate an annual grant of up to 10,000 U.S. dollars or its equivalent in local currency to each of the 1,000 medium-sized rural towns with a population between 5,000 to 20,000 through the Traditional Chieftaincy and Town Councils for the purpose of assisting community development projects initiated by the people themselves. Local people can then augment this donation by raising extra revenues through contributions and solicitation of outside grants to finance their projects. This Central Government initiative should be separated from on-going activities of District Councils. The town development initiative is aimed at encouraging individual towns to make extra efforts to accelerate their own development. Government could then reward those communities which use their funds well with more continuing funding and extra resources. This is likely to lead healthy competition among various towns in any district and substantial direct impact on the lives of local people. This scheme is also likely to draw local people away from grand tribally-based regional development programmes of some non-governmental organisations with the focus on simpler and more achievable smaller town community projects. Annual Government expenditures on the proposed town community development grant scheme would be around 10 million U.S. dollars which is less than 1% of the national budget.

Second, another initiative that can be undertaken is to develop and maintain a large central town market for agricultural produce and other non-agricultural items. The development of a large central market is likely to reduce unemployment in rural areas since many youth can stay in the town and be part-time farmers producing food and agricultural produce to sell in the market while at the same pursuing off-farm work. The development of central market can be a joint private sector/community development whereby private sector investors can work together with local communities. In addition, the expatriate community overseas can be encouraged to invest in the development and renovation of central markets in various rural towns in Ghana on a commercial basis directly with traditional community organisations.

Third, the privatisation of essential services such as water in rural areas could involve the partnership of utility suppliers with churches and traditional chieftaincy authorities. For example, the Ghana Water Board can negotiate with Church and Traditional Authorities for the payment of fixed monthly fees so that the public pipe borne water stands in rural towns and villages could be accessible to all residents who do not have home-based portable water. The church or traditional authorities could then use direct and indirect means of raising revenues to pay the required fixed monthly fees, for example, weekly church collections. This approach could also improve the conservation of water through regular attendance by community organisations to deal with the problem of water wastage resulting from burst street water pipes which are often left unattended for long periods of time. Given the nature of many kilometres of laid street water pipes straddling many rural areas, it might not be possible for the Ghana Water Board or any privatised entity to attend to all burst street pipes quickly without the active cooperation of community organisations in towns and villages. The currently high level of the rural population going back to using untreated water from polluted rivers and streams because of the inability to pay newly-imposed water charges could lead to major community health problems in the future.

The biggest source of water losses in Ghana and many developing countries is outside-the home transmission losses. This is a particularly big problem in rural parts of Ghana where burst public pipe line can remain unattended for days or even weeks. Without some considerable community involvement to monitor and check these transmission losses, no privatised water operating agency can maintain a sustainable public water system. The cost of incorporating high outside-the-home transmission losses will lead to high monthly water charges beyond the reach of most rural people. This will then encourage the illegal tapping of water by breaking into public lines often at nights to fetch water. Under such a situation, the government will not have the necessary resources to police and secure the public water lines.

Fourth, the renovation of fragile extended family houses through material assistance is another major developmental concern. Government housing policy in Ghana as in many other policies have tended to be biased towards nuclear family units. Implementation of structural adjustment programme in Ghana since mid-1980s resulted in thousands of workers in Government departments and corporations being laid off. Without any formal social security system, many returned to their home villages and towns and were absorbed into extended family houses. At the same time Government borrowed money from overseas to establish home mortgage and financing schemes to serve the needs of a few urban dwellers. A new programme in the line of the old roof loan housing scheme established in the 1950s and 1960s is urgently needed to renovate many dilapidated extended family houses in rural areas to absorb retirees and the unemployed who are not be able to build their own houses.

The re-development of extended family houses can incorporate clear private property rights. For example, for each extended family house, self-contained flats with modern toilets and baths can be developed at each of the four corners of the house for members of the family to maintain their privacy while the central area is used for meetings of the extended family and clan lineages. In this regard, the fixed costs of electricity connection and installation of pipe borne water supply are shared among many people. It is therefore possible that the Government can give small loans of 1,000 to 5,000 US dollars for individuals such as teachers and Government workers to develop self contained flats as part of extended family houses rather than wholesale new development of houses.

THE PICTURE BELOW TAKEN IN AUGUST 2011 SHOWS THE FRONT PORTION OF THE RENOVATED HEADQUARTERS' BUILDING OF THE AGONA EAST DISTRICT ASSEMBLY (DISTRICT COUNCIL) AT NSABA. THE FIRST FLOOR OF THIS BUILDING WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT IN 1962 TO HOUSE THE THEN AGONAMAN LOCAL COUNCIL. THIS LOCAL COUNCIL WAS ABOLISHED IN 1971 AND WAS REVIVED IN 2008 AS THE AGONA EAST DISTRICT ASSEMBLY.







THE PICTURE BELOW TAKEN IN APRIL 2011 SHOWS THE MAIN STREET IN THE SALEM WARD (PRESYBTERIAN CHURCH AREA OF NSABA) INCLUDING THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH BUILDING ERECTED IN 1960. THE PEOPLE IN THE PICTURE ARE STUDENTS OF THE NSABA PRESBYTERIAN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL WHO USES THE CHURCH FOR THEIR SERVICES ON SUNDAY AFTERNOON.
 
THE NEXT SEVEN SECTIONS ARE DEVOTED TO THE DESCRIPTION OF NSABA TOWN, AND ITS HISTORY INCLUDING EARLY CHRISTIAN CONTACTS ESPECIALLY THOSE WITH THE SWISS-GERMAN BASEL MISSIONARIES.


3. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF AGONA NSABA TOWN

"Nsaba is a pretty small African town", says Ms Jutta on her home page website with the address: http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/77bdc/

Nsaba is geographically located at Latitude 5 degrees 39 minutes North of the Equator and Longitude 0 degree and 45 minutes West of the Greenwich Meridian Line. The town situated 95 kilometres northeast of Accra, the capital city of Ghana. It is also about 40 kilometres north of the Atlantic Ocean. It takes just about two hours by car to get to Nsaba from the Accra International Airport driving through the George Walker Bush Highway in Accra to Malam and then taking the Accra to Cape Coast Road. Turning right at Gomoa Akotsi, one gets to Agona Kwanyako in about 20 minutes. Thereafter Nsaba is roughly 35 minutes drive from Agona Kwanyako. The trip from Accra International Airport to Gomoa Akotsi is between 60 to 70 minutes.

Nsaba is a rural town in the Central Region of Ghana with an estimated 2018 population of about 15,000 people. The 2010 Population and Housing Census of Ghana puts the population at 9,376 people living in 1353 houses and 2460 households with an average household size of 4.0.

The town is the capital of the Agona East District, one of the 216 districts and municipalities in Ghana. It is also the Headquarters of the Central Regional Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana, one of the 17 Divisional Presbyteries of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. The original Nsaba Presbytery founded in 1922 directly created the current Central Presbytery, West Akyem and Western Ghana Presbyteries of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. The current Central Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana was inaugurated in 1992 following the formation of the West Akyem and Western Ghana Presbyteries from the Nsaba Church.

The town is an important educational centre with over 20 schools including a government-assisted senior secondary school with a population of about 2,200, seven junior secondary schools, several vocational institutes and the Presbyterian Church Educational Centre for the training of lay priests in Ghana. The major economic activities in the town are cocoa farming, food farming, retail stores, construction and government services revolving around schools and local government administration. The schools at Nsaba are discussed next.


4. SCHOOLS AT NSABA

As at June 2018, there were 25 registered public and private schools at Nsaba with a student population of slightly over 5,000. The largest school is the Presbyterian Senior High School founded in 1962 which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2012. It has a population of about 2,200 of which 65% are females. The Presbyterian Primary School is the oldest school at Nsaba and the entire Agona State including the two districts. It was founded by the Basel Missionaries in 1894. The second oldest school is the Presbyterian Junior High School founded in 1900 also by the Basel Missionaries. It was known as the Presbyterian Middle Boarding School until the 1987 educational sector reform. There are a total of five public junior high schools, three private junior high schools, six public primary schools, three private primary schools, three public kindergarten, one crèche and one post-secondary vocational school. More details are provided below for the individual schools.

1. Presbyterian Senior High School. Founded in 1962 by the Government of Ghana and the Presbyterian Church of Ghana. Current enrolment as at January 2012 is about 1,900 with about 65% being females.

2. Presbyterian Junior High School, formerly Presbyterian Middle Boarding School. Founded in 1900. Current enrolment as at January 2012 is 223 with 122 boys and 101 girls.

3. Presbyterian Primary School. Founded in 1894. Current enrolment is 530.

4. Presbyterian Day Care Centre and Kindergarten. Founded in 1978.

5. Methodist Junior High School. Founded in 1953.

6. Methodist Primary A School. Founded in 1914.

7. Methodist Primary B School. Founded in 1961.

8. Methodist Church Day Care Centre and Kindergarten. Founded in 1991.

9. Roman Catholic Junior High School. Founded in 1965.

10. Roman Catholic Primary School. Founded in 1961.

11. Islamic Junior High School. Founded in 1999.

12. Islamic Primary School. Founded in 1989.

13. AME Zion Junior High School. Founded in 2000.

14. AME Zion Primary School. Founded in 1993.

15. AME Zion Kindergarten. Founded in 1993.

16. Solid Foundation Junior High School. A private school.

17. Solid Foundation Primary School. A private school.

18. Church of Christ Junior High School. A private school.

19. Church of Christ Primary School. A private school.

20. Better Home Academy Junior High School. A private school.

21. Better Home Academy Primary School. A private school.

22. Girls Vocational Training Institute. Founded in 1994.

23. Presbyterian Church Layperson Training Centre. Founded in 1998.


5. BRIEF HISTORY OF NSABA

Evidence of human settlement at Nsaba dates back to at least 1400 AD. By 1500, Nsaba had become a functioning village where people from different parts of the catchment area went to beat sponges giving the name of the area as Nsaborowe or sponge beating. The word became corrupted as Nsaba in later years. In 1693, the town was well established and was chosen to become the Paramount Seat of the Agona People.

The Agona State was made up of a voluntary association of ten principal towns and their outlying villages. The Agonas were called Agoro ye na meaning people whose plays or acts were exceptional. Agoro ye na was shortened over time to Agona. By 1693 the Agona State had become fully established with key chieftaincy positions allocated to all the 10 principal towns in the State with a well-coordinated Army. The distribution of the Agona chieftaincy positions over the 240-year period from 1695 to 1935 was as follows:

1. Agona Nsaba: Omanhene or Paramount Chief

2. Agona Nyakrom: Adontehene

3. Agona Asafo: Nifahene

4. Agona Kwanyako: Kyidomhene

5. Agona Abodom: Benkumhene

6. Agona Swedru: Gyasehene

7. Agona Duakwa: Benkumhene

8. Agona Bobikuma: Tufuhene

9. Agona Kwaman: Twafohene

10. Agona Nkum: Obaatan

In 1701, the Akyems under King Ofori Panin The First invaded the Agona State. The Akyem Army was heavily defeated at Agona Kwanyako and Agona Nsaba by the Agonas assisted by some specialist troops from the Borbor Fante States such as Ajumako, Ekumfi and Gomoa The Akyems were trapped around the River Ayensu at Kwanyako which became a sea of blood. With the abortive invasion of Agonas, the weakened Akyem Army was defeated by the then rising State of Asante in the following year (1702) during the first of several wars between the two States (Akyem and Asante). Professor Adu Boahen indicated in his book "Topics of West African History" that the Agonas were conquered by the Borbor Fantes. But this was not true rather the Agonas sought military assistance from the Borbor Fantes during the Akyem invasion of 1701. Over this period, the Agonas were actually under the rule of the Akwamus from 1690 to 1730.

The pre-eminent power in the coastal and middle forest region of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) from 1680 to 1730 was the Akwamu Kingdom. The Akwamus had established their supremacy along the Coast by defeating the European power on the Coast, the Danes, in 1693 with the capture of the prized Christianborg Castle belonging to the Danes, in Accra by King Asomani and his Akwamu Army. The Akwamus also conquered the Agonas, Akyems, Akuapims, the Guan-Akuapims (Larteh and Okere) and the Gas during the first few decades of the 18th Century.

In 1730, the Akwamu vassal states of Agona, Akyem, Akuapim, Guan-Akuapim and Gas formed a military coalition and defeated the Akwamus forcing them to retreat behind the River Volta where they established new settlements anchored around their new principal town of Akwamufie. The Agona Army Contingent of the Coalition Army captured the prized town of the Akwamus called Asamankese (Asare-man-kese; the big town of Akwamu King, Asare). In later years, the Agonas retreated to their base selling off the conquered Akwamu land.

After the defeat of the Akwamus, the Asantes became the pre-eminent power of the Gold Coast (Ghana) in the 18th Century. This pre-eminence was achieved by the Asantes after defeating the Akyems and other middle-forest-belt Akan states in a series of wars in the 18th Century. However, it was in the 19th Century that the Asantes attempted to take over all the coastal and near-coastal States under King Osei Tutu Kwamina Asibe Bonsu and later Kings. This forced the near-coastal and coastal States such as the Agona to sign a treaty of friendship with the then supreme European power along the Gold Coast, the British.

Thus, in the 19th Century, The King of Agona, Nana Yaw Duodu, was one of the leaders of 17 coastal and near-coastal states who signed the Bond of 1844 Friendship Treaty with the British Colonial Government on the 6th of March 1844. The other 16 states were Abora, Ajumako, Anomabu, Asikuma, Assin Attandasu, Assin Apemanim, Cape Coast, Denkyira, Dixcove, Dominase, Ekumfi, Gomoa, James Town (Accra), Twifu, Wassa Amenfi and Wassa Fiasi.

The Asantes engaged the British and their local allies in a series of six wars over the 77-year period from 1824 to 1901. In the first Asante-British War in 1824, the Asantes defeated the British Force in the Battle of Nsamankow with the beaheading of the British General, Sir Charles McCarthy and with his head taken to Kumasi, the capital of the Asante State as a trophy. Looking for revenge, the British Colonial Force revamped and added more allies including the Agona State. In 1826, the enhanced Allied Army defeated the Asantes in the Battle of Katamanso near Dodowa. The third Asante-British War was the Bobikuma War of 1863 in which the Asante Army routed the British Force and their local Allies at Bobikuma after unexplained withdrawal of large number of native troops from Bobikuma by the British Commander, Major Cochran. Agona Troops were part of the native contingent at the Bobikuma War.

The underlying causes of the 1863 Bobikuma War were not fully settled and in 1873, against the advice of several of the Asante Kingmakers, King Kofi Karikari launched a big invasion of the coastal and near-coastal states with an Army of 40,000 men led by General Amankwa Tia in the early part of 1873. After a few battle victories, the Asante Army was bogged down and could not achieve the main objective of the campaign of forcing the coastal and near coastal states to come under the Asante Empire. The Army decided to return to Kumasi and took heavy losses on their retreat back home with only about 20,000 out of the original 40,000 soldiers returning home.

In 1873, two contingents of the Asante Army were engaged by Agona soldiers. One contingent of the Asante Army entered Nsaba, the capital of Agona State in 1873 and met an empty town which had been completely evacuated under the orders of Agona King, King Kofi Kontoh. This Asante contingent was then trapped in the Agona Rivers of Akora and Agyei and leading to many deaths of the invading army and their eventual retreat. The other Asante Army contingent was trapped in the caves and holes around the Ayensu River at Agona Kwanyako. The retreat of the Asante Army from Nsaba and other Agona towns such as Kwanyako reinforced the widespread reputation of Agona People as People Whose Acts are Exceptional (Agoro Ye Na) and were not willing to annex or invade other people but were prepared to defend themselves to the maximum point of their power.

In mid-1873, upon pleas from their local allies and States to prevent further invasion of their states by the Asantes, the British decided to fully engage the Asantes with considerable numbers of their own troops. This brought about the Fourth Asante-British War of 1873-74 known as the Sangreti War. The British Army brought a battalion of over 1,000 British soldiers equipped with superior long-range guns and the under the command of Sir Garnet Wolseley. Several contingents of black soldiers from the British West Indies were also brought to join the invading army that included thousands of local soldiers from the coastal and near-coastal states including Agona, Akyem, Assin, Denkyira and Wassa. The British Allied Army invaded Asante and after a fierce campaign of about six months defeated the Asante Army capturing Kumasi in February 1874. King Kofi Karikari failed to meet the victorious army in Kumasi to negotiate a direct settlement. This led the British Commander to order the burning of Kumasi town in February 1874. General Amankwa Tia was killed a few miles south of Kumasi in early 1874 while defending the capital. The defeat led to the dethroning of King Kofi Karikari who was replaced by his brother, Prince Mensa, as the new Asantehene.

Agona Soldiers also participated in the 5th Asante-British War of 1896-1897 and the Sixth War (Yaa Asantewaa War) of 1900-1901 on the side of the British. The field commander of the British Allied Army in the Fifth War was Brigadier Baden Powell who later founded the Boys Scout Movement in the early part of the 20th Century. In a summary, of the six Asante-British Wars, Agona Soldiers participated in five of them allied with the British Army.

In 1884, the King of Agona, Nana Kofi Kontoh consented to a donation of 37 acres of prime forest land at Nsaba for the establishment of the Christian Church by the Swiss-German Basel Missionaries from the Evangelical Church of Switzerland and Germany. After several fruitless search for land in the dense tropical forest region of Ghana, the Basel Missionaries returned to Nsaba to plead for land to develop their Church with the promise of making Nsaba a major educational and religious Centre in Ghana. The Oyoko Clan Leaders who actually owned the donated land, sensing the prospect of the development of modern education for their citizens, gave the land as a gift despite warning from the Oracle of the Nsaba Gods and Deities that several clan leaders would die if they allowed the Basel Missionaries to establish their Church on the donated land. This led to the rapid growth of the Basel Missionary activities in the forest region of Ghana.

W. Roman was the first Basel Missionary sent to Nsaba in 1890 and established the Church in 1890 in a temporary shelter. He was followed by Missionary Boehner. Jakob Sitzler was the third and probably the most influential Basel Missionary sent to Nsaba. He was a volunteer from 1894 to 1896 assisting the then resident Missionary, Boehner and became the full-time Missionary from 1896 to 1898. Together with Missionary Boehner and the Nsaba Community, he built the old church in 1894 and established the primary school, now Nsaba Presbyterian Primary School in 1894. A junior secondary school, now Presbyterian Junior Secondary School, was established in 1900.

According to Historian, Debrunner, during the first two decades of the 20th Century, the Nsaba outpost was considered the favourite of the Basel Missionaries in Ghana. This explained the considerable investment in education and agricultural extension and sanitation facilities at Nsaba made by these missionaries. The Basel Missionaries were expelled from Nsaba and other towns in Ghana in 1917 during the First World War by the British Colonial Government.

Due to its historical importance, Nsaba was given a British Post Mark in 1905. However, activities of German-speaking Christian Missionaries at Nsaba were becoming a bother to the British Colonial Authority in Ghana following the start of the First World War in 1914. Thus in 1917, during the First World War, the British Colonial Authority expelled all Swiss-German Basel Missionaries from the Gold Coast now Ghana. By 1917, Nsaba had become the pre-eminent Basel Missionary Christian Post in the Gold Coast and the British Colonial Authorities suspected that these Missionaries were acting as spies for the German Government. In 1929, the Pastor of the Church at Nsaba led a request to the British Colonial Office requesting the return of Swiss-German Basel Missionaries to Nsaba and other parts of the Gold Coast. The rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany in the 1930s alarmed the British of the presence of German-speaking people at Nsaba and other parts of the Gold Coast.

In 1931, a major disagreement arose among the Divisional Chiefs of the Agona State and this was tabled to the British Colonial Government for resolution. The British Colonial Government demoted the Nsaba Chief from his position as the Paramount Chief of the Agona State and installed the Chief of Agona Nyakrom as the new Paramount Chief of the Agona State in 1935 after a commission of enquiry was set up to investigate the issue. This was vehemently protested by Nsaba Chiefs and People but was rejected by the British Colonial Government.

In 1951, the Convention People's Party (CPP) led by Dr. Kwame Nkrumah won the first ever Legislative Elections and Dr. Nkrumah was elected Prime Minister of the Gold Coast under British Colonial Government in February 1951. This development came after extensive agitation by the People for self rule. The British Colonial Authorities insisted on two more national elections in 1954 and 1956 before independence was assented to on 6 March 1957. The CPP won one of the two Agona constituencies in the 1954 national election with the other seat going to the National Liberation Movement (NLM) which was sponsored by the Royal Family of Agona Nyakrom which traced its roots to the town of Nyakrom in the Ashanti Region. The NLM was also supported by the Asante Royal Family.

In order to win the crucial 1956 national election and usher in political independence for the Gold Coast (Ghana), Dr. Nkrumah personally negotiated a series of deals with Chiefs and People including prospective parliamentary candidates for the CPP to present a united front. This was done in several parts of the country. In order to win both the Agona West and Agona East constituencies, Dr. Nkrumah met representatives of the Agonas including chiefs and other key leaders and an agreement was reached that two paramountcies would be created for the Agona People when Ghana got independence in 1957. These paramountcies would be based at Nsaba and Nyakrom and individual town chiefs could choose to serve under Nsaba or Nyakrom. Dr. Nkrumah personally visited Nsaba and declared that Nsaba would be given its Paramountcy back if the CPP was returned to power.

With the clear victory by the CPP in the 1956 national election, the British Government agreed to give Gold Coast its political independence on 6 March 1957. In 1958, the new Government of the CPP by an Act of Parliament re-established Nsaba as a Paramount Seat of the Agona People and the majority of the Agona Town Chiefs returned to serve under Nsaba Chief.

Agona Nyakrom remained the second paramountcy seat. Thus since the formal creation of the Agona State in 1693, the Agonas had two paramount seats and two traditional areas: (1) Agona Nsaba Traditional Area and (2) Agona Nyakrom Traditional Area.

Further, in 1962, three local councils were created with their capitals at Agona-Swedru )Swedru Urban Council), at Agona Nyakrom (Nyakrom-Nkum Urban Council) and at Agona Nsaba (Agonaman Local Council for all other Agona Towns outside of Swedru, Nyakrom and Nkum). In 1965, Parliament created one more constituency for the Agona Area based at Nsaba making three in all for the area. Thus by the end of the reign of the CPP during the First Republic, the Agona Area had three local councils and three constituencies.

On Thursday 24 February 1966, the CPP Government under Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was overthrown in a military coup led by Lieutenant Colonel Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka and Major Akwasi Amankwa Afrifa who were both based in Kumasi in the Ashanti Region. After the 1966 military coup, certain sections of the Agona People agitated for the abolishing of the Nsaba Paramountcy Seat by the ruling military junta called the National Liberation Council (NLC). This was agreed to by the NLC and the Nsaba Paramountcy was abolished but was fiercely opposed by the Chiefs and People using legal means.

In early 1967, the National Liberation Council formally abolished the Nsaba Paramountcy Seat. A few months after this abolition decision, on 17 April 1967, a group of soldiers from the Ho Recce Mortar Regiment of the Ghana Army led by Captain Arthur, Captain Yeboah and Second Lieutenant Osei-Poku staged a military coup to overthrow the National Liberation Council. This coup almost succeeded. They captured key government installations in the capital city of Accra and executed Colonel Kotoka in front of the current Accra International Airport. The coup was foiled later in the day by loyalist troops.

The abortive coup of 17 April 1967 disorganised the NLC and brought increased tensions into the military junta whose major unifying force, Colonel Kotoka had been killed in the abortive military coup. In 1968 under increasing pressure from the Chiefs and People of Nsaba, the NLC issued a special decree to restore the Agona Nsaba Paramountcy Seat and reinstated the 1958 Act of Parliament that created the Agona Nsaba Paramountcy. Thus once again, the Agonas had two Paramountcies and two Traditional Areas.

In 1969 national elections were organised to usher in the Second Republic. The constituency of Agona East was restored with its capital at Nsaba. However, in 1971, under the centralisation drive of the Government of the Second Republic, the Agonaman Local Council based at Nsaba was abolished. This led to the gradual decay and death of the thriving Farmers' Market at Nsaba. In 1979 and 1982, the Agona East Constituency with its capital at Nsaba was formalised as part of the Third and Fourth Republican Constitution.

In 2008, the national government of Ghana created 26 more districts. This list was increased to 32 with the last district created being the Agona East district with its capital at Nsaba. The President of the Republic of Ghana who created the Agona East District under the powers of the Fourth Republican Constitution was Mr. John Agyekum Kufour. Mr. Kufour was incidentally the Deputy Foreign Minister of the Second Republic Government that abolished the Agonaman Local Council based at Nsaba.

The new Agona East District Assembly was inaugurated in the same office of the Agonaman Local Council built in 1962 and shown in the second picture above. The inauguration of the new Agona East District Assembly was done on 29 February 2008. This event reinforced the reputation of Nsaba as a place where whatever is taken away is sooner or later returned often by the very people who took the thing away or their representatives.

Agona Nsaba underwent rapid economic development from 1951 onwards with the instalment of the first African government in Ghana. These developments included the Agona Swedru to Akyem Oda road constructed in 1958, the establishment of a senior secondary school and the Agona Local Council both in 1962, and the supply of pipe borne water from the Agona Kwanyako Dam in 1965. Nsaba has a long history of environmental protection. For example, re-use of old refuse dumps and landfills for farming and gardening activities was done in the 1960s and 1970s in the Ankobea Ward near the major trunk road from Nsaba to Oda and wards such as Salem Ward.

The town, like most parts of Ghana, suffered considerable decay and decline after the first military coup which overthrew the government of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and the Convention People's Party in February 1966. After a 20-year period of decline from 1966 to 1985, a period also marked by unresolved chieftaincy disputes in the town, town development efforts anchored around the use of communal labour were revived starting from 1986.

Since 1986, members of the Nsaba Community including its expatriate component, living in Ghana and overseas countries, have made significant attempts to revive the development of the town. One such development was the electricity supply to Nsaba from the national electricity grid which was completed in February 1987. This project was sponsored by town members based on communal labour and financial contributions. The Nsaba Community with the assistance of the National Government also established a district health centre with a maternity ward in 1999. Several new schools were opened in the town during the 1986-2011 period of development revival. These included the Islamic Primary and Junior Secondary Schools, the African Methodist Episcopical Zion Primary School and several kindergarten sponsored by various churches and a few privately-run schools. The Agona-Nsaba Citizens Association of Greater Accra (ANCAGA), an association of expatriate Nsaba citizens resident in Accra, the capital city of Ghana, also undertook several development projects in the town including the construction of a community centre. Various individuals have also made their own attempts to undertake various community development projects in the town over the last 20 years.

One such effort was the Nsaba Town Community Development Special Project coordinated by Kwabena A. Anaman in six phases from August 1995 to August 2017 described above.


The list of Paramount Chiefs or Kings of Agona based at Nsaba from 1693 is as follows:

1. Nana Boabae Asiedu. The first King of the Agona State. He successfully repelled the invasion of the Agona State by King Ofori Panin and the Akyem Army in 1701.

2. Nana Boapia Afriyie

3. Nana Yaw Mintah. He led the Agona Army in the allied defeat of the Akwamu Empire.

4. Nana Awua Osani

5. Nana Kwamena Asomanin

6. Nana Yaw Duodu. He signed the 1844 Bond with the British Colonial Authority on behalf of the Agona State.

7. Nana Kofi Kontoh (picture shown on this website). He donated 37 acres of prime forest land to the Swiss-German Missionaries from Basel, Switzerland for the development of the Christian Church in 1884. The area of land is now called Salem Ward.

9. Nana Yaw Asomanin

10. Nana Kwaku Sam. He reigned from 1900 to 1905 and led the Agona Army as a squadron of the combined Gold Coast Army under the British Colonial Government to defeat the Asante Army in 1901 Yaw Asantewaa War.

11. Nana Kodwo Omenana.

12. Nana Yaw Yeboah

13. Nana Kwame Menano

14. Nana Kwabena Aboagye

15. Nana Kwabena Asare.

16. Nana Kwaku Asuah

17. Nana Afua Anyamah. She was the First Female Paramount Chief or Queen.

18. Nana Kwasi Nyame


6. MORE DESCRIPTION ABOUT NSABA INCLUDING ITS HISTORY

It is generally accepted based on archaeological-linked scientific evidence that human beings evolved as walking and talking apes between 50,000 to 100,000 years ago on the plains of East Africa. Early human beings distinguished themselves from other apes and mammals by their abilities to talk. They then spread themselves around the world including other parts of Africa. Archaeological evidence suggests that there were settlements along the coast of Ghana as far back as 30,000 years ago indicating that it took at least 20,000 years for early humans to reach Ghana from East Africa.

The evidence of traditional chieftaincy practices of the Effutu people in Ghana (based at Winneba, 40 kilometres from Nsaba) are identical to the practices of Ancient Egypt suggesting migration from this part of the world. The Effutus, like other Guan people in present day Ghana, are thought to have arrived in Ghana around 8th Century, much earlier than the more populous Akan-speaking people who arrived in present day Ghana possibly around the 12th or 13th Century.

The people of Nsaba are Agonas, a sub-group of the Akan ethic group. The Akans are the largest ethnic group in Ghana and a significantly large ethnic group in the neighbouring country of Ivory Coast (42%). The Akans, currently numbering about 12 million people (in year 2015), constitute about 47.5% of the current population of Ghana based on the final results of the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. They have a traditional matrilineal system of lineage and culture.

One of the main identities of the Akan group are the day names given to children at birth which were discouraged by the Christian missionaries but now recognised by the local Churches. Weekly Church collections and dues are now often based on day-names with males and females born on the same day of the week collecting their monies together. This acts as a form of competition spurring greater donations for the Church. The seven matrilineal clan lineages and 40-day months are also important Akan identities.

The Ghana Statistical Service and the Government of Ghana Akans into about 20 sub-groups based on the Population Census format recognising Agonas as a distinct Akan sub-ethnic group. This classification was used for the various Population Censuses conducted in Ghana in 1948, 1960, 1970, 1984, 2000 and the more recent 2010 Census. Agonas are given a distinct numerical code of 01 for the Akan group separate from the Fante subgroup which has a numerical code of 14.

Based on the 2000 Population Census, Agonas were among the top 20 ethnic groups in Ghana, the 17th largest ethnic group in Ghana, accounting for about 1.37% of the entire population of Ghana. Agonas were also the second largest ethnic group in the Central Region of Ghana accounting for 6.2% of the population in the Region. Agonas are distinct from Fantes who accounted for 9.9% of the population of Ghana in 2000 compared to the largest group, Asantes (14.8% of the population in 2000) and the second largest group, Ewes (12.7% of the population in 2000).

The 2000 Ghana Population Census gives the following classifications related to ethnic groups as follows:

(1) Asantes, 14.8%; (2) Ewes, 12.7%; (3) Fantes, 9.9%; (4) Bonos including Bandas, 4.6%; (5) Dangmes, 4.3%; (6)Dagombas, 4.3%; (7) Dagartes, 3.7%; (8) Akyems, 3.4%; (9) Gas, 3.4%; (10) Akuapims, 2.9%; (11) Kokombas, 2.7%; (12) Nabdom, 2.4%; (13) Kusasi, 2.2%, (14) Kwahus, 1.9%; (15) Ahantas, 1.5%; (16) Wassas, 1.4%; (17) Agonas, 1.4%; (18) Gonjas, 1.2%; (19)Sefwis, 1.2%; (20) Nzemas, 1.2% and all other ethnic groups, 18.9%.

The Akans migrated into the present day tropical forest region of Ghana and Ivory Coast from the savannah region of northern West Africa around the 13th Century AD to preserve their matrilineal-based cultural system from advancing more militarily-powerful patrilineal-based groups. On arrival in the present day Ghana and Ivory Coast, the Akans split into different groups with some moving closer to the coastal areas near the Atlantic Ocean while other groups stayed in the middle forest belt region. Over time about 20 independent Akan subgroups or states emerged partly due to the geography and limited transportation infrastructure.

The key Akan groups are Agonas, Akwamus, Asantes, Fantes, Bonos, Akyems, Akuapims, Kwahu, Wassa, Ahanta, Nzemas, Assin, Denkyiras and Aowin. The Agona Kingdom, a relatively small state, emerged in 1693 as one of the independent Akan states with its capital at Agona Nsaba. The independence of Agona State during pre-colonial era was largely secured by strategic alliances with the Akwamus and Fante states against incursions from Akyems.

The common Akan language, the seven matrilineal clan lineages and other important identities remained the same across the various Akan subgroups though naturally different Akan language dialects emerged. There are currently four written dialects of the Akan language: Akuapim Twi, Asante Twi, Fante and Nzema. The Agona dialect is mainly a Twi dialect with some Fante minority expression. This is due to the fact that the Royal Families of most of the key Agona towns migrated from Twi-speaking areas. This migration pattern and the fact that the Agonas are sandwiched between Fante and Twi-speaking Akans has led to the development of this unique dialect.


7. HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY IN GHANA WITH EMPHASIS ON AGONA NSABA

7.1. Introduction

Religions evolved with the evolution of apes into human beings in East Africa at least 50,000 years ago starting with traditional religions that enshrine a belief in a Supreme Being or God. Traditional religions primarily link human beings to a Divine Creator through intermediate deities or supra-normal beings emphasing the balance of human beings with nature including other animals. A major revolutionary change in religions emerged about 3,500 years ago (Second Century BC) in Persia (Iran) with the movement of Zoroastrianism founded by the Persian Prophet, Zoroaster or Zarathustra, anchored on the central belief of only one God (monotheism).

The key concepts of Zoroastrianism included a belief in one God which has a counterpart evil Being (Satan), the capacity of human beings to choose between right and wrong, confession of personal sins, post-life judgment of human beings incorporated in heaven and hell, the coming Saviour (Messiah), resurrection of the body, recital of prayers five times a day and the New Year Festival (Noruz). These concepts influenced the development of the major monotheistic World religions such as Judaism, Islam and Christianity.

Christianity first arrived on the soil of present day Ghana with the arrival of Portuguese traders and merchants in the last quarter of the 15th Century. Based on some historical accounts, there were some Christian followers among the citizens of ancient Ghana Empire, who mainly practised traditional African religions. Ancient Ghana Empire lasted for about 1,000 years from the 3rd Century AD to the 13th Century AD. Several groups in modern Ghana are believed to have migrated from the southern parts of the Ancient Ghana Empire (Debrunner, 1967). From the 15th Century AD, Christianity was mainly practised by European traders and children and a few local converts until the arrival of Swiss-German Basel missionaries in 1828 when full evangelical work was directed at the indigenous people.

Agona Nsaba was one of the towns settled by the Basel Missionaries. The town is an important religious centre with at least 40 Christian Church denominations and a small but significant Muslim community having a permanent presence in the town. The town is considered to be one of the five main Presbyterian Church towns in Ghana and is the headquarters of the Central Region Presbyterian Church. The 1982 and 1991 Synods were held in the town with the 1982 Synod remembered for its major resolutions.

The Basel Missionaries were the first Christian missionaries of European descent to settle and work at Nsaba starting around 1890. After the establishment of the Basel Church in the town, other Christian Churches also established their missions such as the Methodist Church of the Wesleyan Missionary Society of Great Britain and the Roman Catholic Church. Several Christian Churches of African origin also exist in the town such as the Musama Disco Christo Church, an offshoot of the Methodist Church.

Traditional religious beliefs centred on the concept of one God with lower influential deities remain a cornerstone of the cultural system. Debrunner (1967) argued that the lower influential deities and gods were strictly speaking tutelar spirits or guardian angels subservient to the Supreme Being or God. Nsaba was one of the towns the early Basel Christian missionaries worked closely with local traditional healers and religious priests. An example is an account of Kwame Oppon, a traditional healer who treated some of the early missionaries as published in the German language by Friedrich Hermann Fischer (1991, pp. 506-507). The early Akan version of the Bible also contained several traditional religious names and identities.

A common Akan cultural institution adopted by the early Christian missionaries and still used is the “Asafo” system. The traditional Asafo system was made up of youths organised around companies whose members were called upon on very short notice to participate in a variety of community and traditional state activities. Asafo company members had to be always prepared to be called upon to participate in a range of activities at any time. These activities included traditional festivals, community development projects, town security activities such as defending the population against attacks from wild animals from the forests entering human settlements. The Asafo companies also acted as the voluntary army in times of wars.

At Agona Nsaba and other places in Ghana, Christian missionaries invoked the Asafo institutional concept to establish the “Kristo Asafo” or “Elders of the Church of Christ” and “Kristo Asafomma” or “the Army of Christ’s Followers” as a rallying point for conversion and spread of Christianity in Ghana similarly to the concept of the Salvation Army. The Asafo concept also probably influenced Lord Baden Powell, the founder of the Boys Scout Movement in the establishment of that organisation. Lord Powell was the Deputy Commander of the British Army Division based in the Gold Coast (now Ghana) which finally defeated the Army of the Asante Empire in 1901 directly commanded by Queen Mother Yaa Asantewaa. Lord Baden Powell returned to London a few months after the 1901 war and established the Boys Scout Movement a short while later.

Several symbols of the traditional Asafo system and other local cultural institutions have also been adopted by local Ghanaian evangelists and pastors of various Pentecostal Churches to spread the Gospel of Jesus Christ. For example, several well-known traditional Asafo war songs and chants have been adapted as Christian songs. These adapted songs are often sung at open-air mass Church meetings or evangelical services to mobilise and prepare the crowd for the main events: the delivery of sermons and faith healing.

7.2 Basel Missionaries’ Activities at Agona Nsaba

The Basel Missionaries settled at Agona Nsaba in 1890 and made it one of their most important outposts in the tropical forest region of Ghana. Land for the Nsaba Basel mission was acquired from the Paramount Chief and a Basel Missionary Church outpost was established in the town in 1884 (Debrunner, 1967). W. Roman was the first missionary to be posted to the town followed by Missionary Boehner and then Jakob Sitzler and his wife from 1894 to 1898. The Sitzlers built the Old Church and Missionary Headquarters with the Nsaba Community around 1894 to establish the local Church. These structures still exist. The Old Church building was renovated in November 2011 by the Government of Ghana as part of activities for the hosting of the 27th Ghana National Farmers' day at Nsaba on 2 December 2011.

In 1914, the Nsaba Congregation was the second largest of the Basel Churches in Ghana (Presbyterian Church of Ghana, 1992; Debrunner, 1967). The largest Basel Church was at Akropong in the Akuapim Region where the Basel Missionaries first settled in 1828 after their entry to Ghana. The choice of Akropong area was due to the relatively cold weather in that area. The first group of missionaries who arrived in 1828 did not survive due to tropical diseases. A second group arrived in the 1840s made up of some West Indians were able to establish effectively the Church in the Akuapim region. The late entry of the missionaries to the forest region was probably due to the difficulty in adapting to hotter and more humid climate.

The Basel missionaries established several educational institutions in Nsaba such as the Primary School in 1894. They also built a Special Post-Primary School for Boys in 1900 (now the Presbyterian Junior Secondary School; a mixed school) which has educated many prominent people who have served in various positions in Ghana and overseas. These people include several national Government Ministers and Special Advisors such as Brigadier Nunoo-Mensah, the current National Security Advisor of the former President of the Republic of Ghana, Professor John Evans Atta Mills.

A Special Post-Primary School for Girls was also later built. Initially this post-primary school was part of the Boys’ School established in 1900 but it was later moved to adjacent area. The Special School for Girls was converted to a mixed Training College in 1962 and later to a Senior Secondary School in 1972. The Basel missionaries also established several on-farm trials on gardens of Christian converts living near the Mission Station for introduced tropical crops from South America and established bore water supply system.

The Basel Missionaries were expelled by the British Colonial Authority during the First World War because the Gold Coast (now Ghana) was a British colony and Britain was at war with Germany so missionaries of German descent were expelled from many British colonies (Presbyterian Church of Ghana, 1992). The last Basel Evangelical Missionary, Reverend Henking left Nsaba in 1917. After the expulsion of the Basel missionaries, their work was undertaken by Scottish Presbyterian missionaries from Great Britain. A few Basel Missionaries were readmitted to Ghana to work in the Asante Region in the mid-1920s. In 1926, the Scottish Missionary Church and the remnants of the Basel Missionary Church merged to form the independent Presbyterian Church in the country (Debrunner, 1967).

In 1929 Presbyters and Catechists of 36 Congregations in Agona and Akyem areas under the Pastor of Nsaba petitioned the Colonial Office in London through the Governor of the Gold Coast to formally protest the expulsion of the Basel missionaries and requested their return to assist local African evangelists working in Nsaba and other areas of the Gold Coast. In 1931, the London Colonial Office approved the return of the Basel missionaries to the Gold Coast and Reverend Henking returned to Nsaba from Basel to resume his duty in 1933. However in 1939, at the beginning of the Second World War, missionaries of German descent especially the Basel and the Bremen missionaries, were imprisoned and later deported from the Gold Coast.

7.3. Relationship Between Early Christianity and Traditional Religions

The apparent close relationship between some of the early Christian missionaries and local traditional healers and medical practitioners at Nsaba and other areas of Ghana appeared to have been driven by a number of factors. Firstly, tropical diseases and the lack of effective drugs from Europe to deal with them took a heavy toll on the missionaries. As such the missionaries turned to local healers for treatment of various illnesses. In addition, several of the missionaries were botanists and showed some interest in working with local healers to understand the medicinal properties of various plants of the tropical forests. It was therefore not surprising that in several areas, some of the Christian missionaries recruited some traditional healers and religious priests as Church Elders, a practice now discouraged by modern Ghanaian Churches.

Secondly, the missionaries could not fully understand the cultural and environmental systems of the tropical forests especially those rules and regulations dealing with several wild animal species some of which have now become extinct due to increasing encroachment of the forests through human activities. For example, at Nsaba, it was well known of repeated appearances and sightings often at nights at the boundary of the forests and human settlements of several species of rare animals such as the humanoid apes (Sasabonsam) and dwarfs (mmoatia) especially around the edge of the forest behind the two Post-Primary Schools. Eye witnesses including graduates of both Post-Primary Schools indicated that these animals would come and bang violently on the doors of their dormitories of the boarding houses resulting in screams from students which permeated the town. This sometimes brought the immediate mobilisation of the local Asafo company to patrol the area in an attempt to drive away these creatures.

A major philosophical conflict between traditional African religions and early Christianity centred on the question of whether certain non-human animal species have values or hold values and therefore ought to be compensated for the loss of their environment through human economic activities or destructive actions. Traditional healers and religious priests maintained that such compensations were necessary to pacify these creatures quite similar to the compensation criteria of human legal systems and also to limit the destruction of ecosystems and habitats of these animals. This position was not formally accepted by the Christian Church though several of the early missionaries especially the botanists attempted to understand it.

Thirdly, despite the earlier assertion of close cooperation between some missionaries and traditional religious priests, many Christian missionaries considered traditional African religions as strictly paganism of the Old Testament variety especially in the area of spiritual objects. Traditional religions considered selected environmental resources such as rare species of plants and animals and rivers and lakes as places or assets where spirits and deities might reside temporarily with the capacity to move from place to place.

Destruction of these plants and animals for human development therefore often required some form of compensation through the sacrifices to compensate the deities which used these places as temporary residential places. Many Christian missionaries and local evangelists regarded this phenomenon as an indicator of paganism or animism. However some local Ghanaian evangelists have integrated many rules and rituals of traditional religions into their Churches, for example, the “Osofo-Komfo” Religious Movement founded by the late K. Damuah, a former Roman Catholic priest.

In general, the multi-component nature of traditional religions was not fully understood. The functions of traditional healers and religious practitioners were varied and included (a) experts of herbal medicine involved in the treatment of various sicknesses and ailments such as fractures and many psychotic disorders; (b) working with traditional rulers in the design, improvement and enforcement of safeguards for protection of rare plants and animals and other environmental resources such as rivers and streams; (c) exercising traditional judicial powers in resolving interpersonal conflicts and/or conferring punishments on lawbreakers, (d) exercising para-normal and extra-sensory powers and (e) and as custodians of traditional religions. Traditional religious priests were predominantly women, a factor used by some members of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana to argue for the ordination of women as priests in that Church.

Not all traditional healers or medicine men perform all the five functions described above. Some traditional healers are strictly traditional herbal medical practitioners or traditional psychics. These include modern doctors who have incorporated traditional herbal medicine into their modern practice as is widely done in China as an alternative institutional health delivery system. In Ghana, a traditional herbal medicine research institute financed by the Government has been set up at Mampong in the Akuapim area. In addition, the Ghana Traditional Healers and Psychics Association, made up of traditional and modern healers has been recognised by the Government and active especially since independence in 1957.

With these regards to the five main functions of traditional healers and religious priests, many Christian missionaries generally did not differentiate the first two objectives from the others. Nevertheless some Christian missionaries understood the multi-component nature of traditional religions and supported use of traditional medicine and related environmental protection.

Concerning judicial functions of traditional religious priests, this is one area where several early Christian missionaries of African descent undertook dialogue with traditional religious priests and appealed to them directly for clemency and forgiveness for people who committed serious violations of traditional laws. The exercise of extra-sensory powers by traditional medicine men in non-European cultures has been widely reported since the 19th Century by European travellers and Christian missionaries (Orbis Publishing Limited, 1996; Douglas, 1977).

Psychics are used for selected police investigations in Australia and other developed countries including the tracking of missing people. An example was the 1996 case involving a missing person whose body was found in Botany Bay area of Sydney. With regards to the religious component of traditional culture and religion, the acceptance of one Supreme Being was well known. The Supreme Being was the most important deity and the final arbiter of all human matters whose name was mentioned first in the pouring of libations. However traditional religions allowed for existence and worship of other lower powerful deities.

Fritz Ramseyer, a leading Basel missionary who worked in Ghana, wrote in the early 1900s that the native people had widespread belief in God. The challenge of the Christian Church to him was to convince the natives to appeal directly to God through His Son, Jesus Christ instead of appealing through a hierarchical step of lower-powerful deities. Ramseyer concluded that such an understanding of traditional religions would ensure a promising future for Christianity in Ghana and Africa. Local Christian evangelists have adapted and improvised Ramseyer’s message. They indicate that God as a Spirit has a Channel and Frequency. Christians, they argue, should directly appeal to God (bypassing the Intermediate Agents of Deities) through persistent prayers, fasting and faith in Jesus Christ (for example, Acquah and Asante, 1992).

This message has also been taken up by some prominent local musicians such as C.K. Mann. His early musical albums shot Mann into major prominence in Ghana. He was crowned the “King of Highlife” in Ghana in 1972. Highlife is a popular musical style in West Africa especially Ghana and Nigeria. It is a mix of traditional African music fused with jazz and more recently with reggae from Jamaica. Mann’s album “Party Time with Cee Kay” contained a popular tract in which he exhorted people to worship God directly through establishing direct links bypassing intermediate agents.

The extensive privatisation of water services and basic health services in Ghana over the last 30 years have led to high service charges and hospital fees which are often beyond the financial means of many rural poor. Increasingly more rural people are quietly using the services of traditional healers, herbalists and religious priests and traditional birth attendants to address their needs while maintaining their Christian identity through regular Church attendances.

The increasing use of the services of these traditional indigenous health professionals makes it an economic imperative for the traditional health services to be modernised especially in the improvement of the hygienic aspects. One way of enhancing these services is through the supply of safe drinking water to the homes of traditional religious priests, healers, herbalists and birth attendants for use by these people in the preparation of herbal medicines and also for use by resident patients. Our Phase 2 project included a subproject which involved the supply of pipe borne water to the homes of traditional healers and birth attendants.


8. IMPORTANT TIME LINES OF HISTORICAL EVENTS CONCERNING NSABA AND AGONA PEOPLE FROM 1600 TO DATE.

1. 1400: Early known human settlement in the town possibly by isolated remnants of Guan Peoples, Awutus and Effutus, who migrated to the present day Ghana earlier than the Akans groups such as Agonas.

2. 1500: Nsaba developed into a village settlement of dozens of huts by dozens of Akan migrants from Akwamu and Tekyiman.

3. 1693: Nsaba was chosen as the Paramountcy Seat of the Agona People with its Royal Asona-Dwumana Chief declared Omanhene of Agona State.

4. 1701: The Agona Army defeated the Akyem Army under King Ofori Panin The First after the latter had invaded Agona.

5. 1730: Agona Army allied with the Akyems, Akuapims, Guan-Akuapims and Gas defeat their Overlord, the Akwamus.

6. 1826: Agona Army joined the Gold Coast British Allied Army to defeat the Asantes in the Battle of Katamanso in the second Asante-British War.

7. 1844: Nana Yaw Duodu, the Omanhene of Agona State signed the Bond of Friendship with the British. He actually went to Cape Coast to sign it in November 1844 after the original agreement was promulgated on 6 March 1844.

8. 1863: The Agonas sent a contingent to join the British Allied Army on the Gold Coast that went to war with the Asante Army in the Bobikuma War which the Allied Army lost. This was the third Asante-British War.

9. 1873: The Agona Army successfully resisted the invasion of a contingent of the Asante Army led by General Opoku Fofie at Nsaba and Kwanyako. The 1873 invasion was sanctioned by King Kofi Karikari to force Agona State and other states into the Asante Empire.

10. 1873-74: The Agonas sent a contingent of troops to join the British Allied Army that invaded the Asante State in the Sagrenti War which led to capture of Kumasi and defeat of the Asantes and subsequent dethroning of King Kofi Karikari. This was the Fourth Asante-British War.

11. 1884: King Kofi Kontoh, on behalf of the Agona State and the Oyoko Clan Family of Nsaba, donated 37 acres of prime forest land to the Swiss-German Christian Missionaries from Basel to establish a branch of the Evangelical Church of Switzerland and Germany at Nsaba.

12. 1890: The first Swiss-German Basel Missionary, W. Roman settled at Nsaba and established the Evangelical Basel Church in a temporary shelter.

13. 1894: Swiss-German Basel Missionary, Jakob Sitzler arrived at Nsaba as a volunteer to assist Missionary Boehner, the Second Basel Missionary to settle at Nsaba.

14. 1894: Work started on the Basel Missionary Headquarters at Nsaba.

15. 1894: Work started on the construction of the old chapel at Nsaba by the Basel Missionaries.

16. 1894: Work started on the construction of the Nsaba Primary School and the Teachers' Flats by the Basel Missionaries.

17. 1896: A contingent of Agona Troops joined the British Gold Coast Allied Army in the invasion of Asante in the Fifth Asante-British War which led to the defeat of the Asantes.

18. 1898: Missionary Jakob Sitzler left Nsaba after four years stay, two years as a volunteer and two years as a missionary. Jakob Sitzler was probably the greatest Christian missionary or priest or pastor, Ghanaian or non-Ghanaian, who worked at Nsaba.

19. 1900: The Basel Missionaries completed the construction and inauguration of a junior secondary school at Nsaba which was also a boarding school.

20. 1905: Nsaba was granted a British Postal Service Postmark recognising it as a postal destination.

21. 1914: The Nsaba Basel Missionaries Church became the second largest of the Basel Churches in Ghana after the Akropong Presbytery.

22. 1917: The Basel Missionaries were expelled by the British Colonial Authorities from the Gold Coast including Nsaba.

23. 1930: The construction of the Nsaba Central Farmers' Market was completed by the Omanhene.

24. 1931: Several divisional or Town Chiefs of the Agona State formally rebelled against the Omanhene of Agona based at Nsaba.

25. 1935: The British Colonial Authority demoted Nsaba Chief as the Omanhene of Agona State.

26. 1951: Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and the Convention People’s Party (CPP) won the Legislative Elections organised by the British Colonial Government. Agona voters voted massively for the CPP.

27. 1954: The CPP won the national elections for Parliament but won only one of the two Agona seats. The other seat was won by the National Liberation Movement (NLM). The NLM was supported by the Royal Family from Agona Nyakrom who traced their ancestry directly from Nyakrom in the present day Ashanti region.

28. 1954: The Agona Local Council was set up as a local government entity.

29. 1956: Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and the CPP won the national parliamentary elections. The CPP won both Agona Constituencies (seats)

30. 1957: Ghana gained independence from Great Britain on 6 March.

31. 1958: The Parliament of Ghana enacted an Act to restore the Traditional Paramount Seat for Nsaba abolished by the British Colonial Government in 1935. Thus for the first time since the Agona State was formally established as a Paramount Traditional Area in 1695, there were two traditional seats of power in the Area. These were (1) Agona Nsaba Traditional Area and Paramountcy and (2) Agona Nyakrom Traditional Area and Paramountcy.

32. 1958: The government completed the construction of the Agona Swedru-Akyem Oda which passed through Nsaba.

33. 1960: Ghana was formally declared a Republic after the Presidential Elections won by Dr. Nkrumah. Both Agona constituencies voted massively for Dr. Nkrumah.

34. 1962: The Agonaman Local Council was established at Nsaba as its headquarters. Two other local councils were established for Agonas: The Agona Swedru Urban and the Agona Nyakrom-Agona Nkum Urban Council.

35. 1962: The Presbyterian Training College was established at Nsaba.

36. 1964: The referendum for one-party state was approved with overwhelming support from Agona Voters.

37. 1965: A third constituency was created for Agonas by President Kwame Nkrumah based at Nsaba making a total of three constituencies for the Agona Area.

38. 1965: Modern pipe-borne water supply system established at Nsaba and other major Agona towns after the completion of the Agona Kwanyako Dam.

39. 1966: A military coup overthrew the government of CPP. All political parties were banned and the constituencies abolished.

40. 1967: The Agona Nsaba Traditional Paramountcy Seat or Omahene Position was abolished by the military junta, the National Liberation Council (NLC).

41. 1968: The NLC enacted a special decree to restore the Agona Nsaba Paramountcy or Omanhene after a very intensive campaign by the Chiefs and People of Nsaba using all available legal means. Thus once again the Agona State had two Paramount Chieftaincy Seats at (1) Agona Nsaba and (2) Agona Nyakrom.

42. 1968: The construction of the new post office building was completed at Nsaba after the delay caused by the 1966 military coup. The construction was largely done using communal labour and resources of the local people.

43. 1969: The Agona East Constituency was established with headquarters at Nsaba following the promulgation of the 1969 Second Republican Constitution. Majority of Agona East voters chose the Progress Party (PP) parliamentary candidate, Mr. J.A. Anyan.

Agona Nsaba voters were told that if they did not support the PP candidate the Paramountcy returned by the NLC would be abolished. A special durbar of chiefs and people of Nsaba were held in the town in 1969 to deliver the message from the NLC government. Thus Nsaba voters switched from the All People Republican Party (APRP) to vote for PP.

44. 1969: The PP Government which won the parliamentary elections enacted and enforced the Aliens Compliance Order forcing hundreds of West African nationals especially Nigerians out of Ghana in October 1969. Several Nigerians living at Nsaba especially in the Zongo Area of the town were forced to leave and sold their properties and stores at bargain prices to local Nsaba people.

45. 1971: The PP Government abolished the Agonaman Local Council in October as part of centralisation drive where the 700 local councils of the First Republic were replaced with about 60 district councils.

46. 1972: The PP Government was overthrown in a military coup by Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong on 13 January, three months after the abolition of the Agonaman Local Council based at Nsaba.

47. 1976: Agona Cocoa District including Nsaba confirmed its position as the fourth largest cocoa production district in Ghana after Tepa, Sunyani and Kumasi Cocoa Districts. Ghana was the leading producer of cocoa in the world during that year.

48. 1977: One of the worst droughts in the history of Ghana occurred. This drought is now known to have been linked to the most severe form of the El Nino Southern Oscillation Phenomenon (ENSO) recorded. Production of major crops at Nsaba declined and people resorted to harvesting of bush fruits for survival.

49. 1979: Junior officers of the Ghana Armed Forces overthrew the government of the Supreme Military Council on 4 June. Elections were held in August which were won by the People’s National Party (PNP), an offshoot of the CPP. The Agona East Constituency seat was won by the PNP. The 15 seats in the Central Region were split between the PNP and the Action Congress Party (ACP) led by Colonel Frank Bernasko, a native of Cape Coast. Incidentally, ACP won all the seven core Fante seats of the Central Region. The PNP won the eight seats belonging to the Agonas, Assins and Denkyiras in the Central Region.

50. 1982: The Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana was held at Nsaba.

51. 1983: The worst drought in the history of Ghana occurred. This drought is now known to have been linked to the ENSO phenomenon. Production of major crops at Nsaba declined and people resorted to harvesting of bush fruits for survival.

52. 1987: Nsaba was connected for the first time to the national electricity grid system in February since the completion of the Akosombo Dam in January 1966. The connection to the national grid was made possible through large financial contributions and provision of communal labour by Agona Nsaba citizens living in Ghana and overseas.

53. 1991: The Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana was held at Nsaba. This Synod was known for the major decisions related to the reform of the Church.

54. 1993: Ghana returned to multi-party democratic governance with the holding of national elections in November and December ushering in the Fourth Republic. The majority of Agona East voters supported the National Democratic Congress (NDC) party of the military leader, Flight-Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings. The NDC also won the Agona East parliamentary seat.

55. 1995: A special development project initiative called the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative, which aimed at improving the water supply, environmental sanitation and health status of the people of Nsaba was launched by Dr. Kwabena A. Anaman, with funds from several Churches and Schools from Sydney, Australia.

56. 1996: The second national elections under the Fourth Republic were held in December. The majority of Agona East voters chose the NDC party for both the Presidential and Parliamentary elections.

57. 1998: The Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative completed the establishment of pipe-borne water supply to 10 public kindergarten, primary and junior secondary schools at Nsaba involving laying over three kilometres of pipe line.

58. 2000: The third national elections under the Fourth Republic were held in December. The majority of Agona East voters rejected the NDC party and supported the candidate of the New Patriotic Party (NPP), Mr. John Agyekum Kufour. This was partly due to the bold promise made by Mr. Kufour during the year at Nsaba that he would renovate the dilapidated Nsaba Central Market if elected to power. The NDC however retained the Agona East Parliamentary seat.

59. 2004: The fourth national elections under the Fourth Republic were held in December. The NPP won both the Presidential and Parliamentary elections at Agona East Constituency.

60. 2008: On 29 February, the newly-created Agona East District Assembly was inaugurated at Nsaba. Thus local government was returned to Nsaba after 37 years absence.

61. 2008: The Nsaba Ghana Community Projects Special Development Initiative completed the construction of four modern toilet facilities for junior secondary schools at Nsaba with the last one constructed for the Nsaba Islamic Junior Secondary School. The three earlier ones were constructed in 2000, 2002 and 2004.

62. 2008: The fifth national elections under the Fourth Republic were held in December. The NPP Parliamentary candidate retained his seat by a mere 34 votes. However, the NDC Presidential Candidate, Professor John Evans Atta Mills won the Presidential Election in the constituency by about 1,500 votes out of a total of about 30,000 valid votes cast. Professor Mills also won the country-wide national election and became President of the Republic of Ghana on 7 January 2009.

63. 2011: The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana passed a resolution in its meeting in August to remove the Central Presbytery Office from Nsaba to Cape Coast. The resolution which was quietly sneaked into the list of resolutions of the Meeting was taken without any consultation with the Central Presbytery Office of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana, the local Nsaba Church and the People and Chiefs of Nsaba. Further, no reason was assigned for the propose move which was to take effect in 2013. It was a revival of a similar move proposed at the 1991 Synod of the Church which was quickly quashed after a fierce protest by the Nsaba Church.

Some Agona Nsaba citizens and other Agonas believed that the resolution to move the Central Presbytery from Agona Nsaba was motivated largely on ethnic grounds due to Agonas being a small minority ethnic group in Ghana and was an attempt to marginalise Agona People.

64. 2011: The National Farmers’ Day of the Republic of Ghana was held for the first time in Agona Area at Nsaba on 2 December. It attracted thousands of visitors and farmers from all over the country and was chaired by the Vice President of the Republic of Ghana, Mr. John Dramani Mahama.

65. 2011: In December, the Local Congregation of the Nsaba Presbyterian Church informed individual members of the Church resident outside Nsaba of the decision by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana to remove the Central Presbytery from Nsaba which was taken in August 2011. The decision was taken without any consultation with the Nsaba Church or its members.

66: 2011: Protest action against the proposed move of the Central Presbytery from Nsaba was started in December with a series of letters of protest sent directly to the Moderator of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana against the move.

67. 2011: The Moderator of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana visited Nsaba in Ghana in December after his receipt of protest letters from several Nsaba individuals to inform the Nsaba Congregation of the proposed move of the Central Presbytery. The proposal was strongly and unanimously rejected by the Nsaba Congregation in his presence.

68. 2012: A worldwide campaign against the proposed move of the Central Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana was launched in January with one of its Internet host bases as the Nsaba Ghana Community Project website.

69: 2012: A new modern seven-classroom block was commissioned for the Nsaba Islamic Junior Secondary School in January by the former President of the Republic of Ghana, Flight-Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings. The building was a gift donated by Brigadier-General Joseph Nunoo-Mensah, National Security Advisor of the President of the Republic of Ghana and an old boy of the Nsaba Presbyterian Junior Secondary School.

70. 2012: The Boundaries Committee of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana met the Nsaba Congregation and the Nsaba Traditional Council at Nsaba to discuss the actual implementation of the proposed move of the Central Presbytery from Nsaba on 4 May.

The Nsaba Congregation and the Nsaba Traditional Council welcomed the Commission to the meeting at the Church but steadfastly refused to discuss any issue concerning the implementation of the proposed move. They argued that since the Presbyterian Church of Ghana did not even consult the local Church before its decision to move the Central Presbytery in August 2011, this was against natural justice and gross disrespect of the Nsaba Church and the People and Chiefs of Nsaba given the immense sacrifices made by Nsaba People to establish the Presbyterian Church of Ghana in 1922 and the spread of the Church in Ghana.

71. 2012: A new classroom complex for the Nsaba Presbyterian Junior High School (formerly known as the Nsaba Boarding School) was commissioned by the Central Regional Minister on 10 November 2012 during the festivities marking the Traditional Akwambo Festival of the People of Agona Nsaba.

The new school building replaced the original building constructed in 1900 by the People of Agona Nsaba and the Basel Missionary Church of Switzerland. The old building was partially destroyed by severe rainfall on 18 June 2010. The construction of the new building complex which was financed by the Ghana Education Trust was undertaken largely under the initiative of Brigadier Joseph Nunoo-Mensah, the National Security Adviser of the President of Ghana.

72. 2012: On 7 December 2012, parliamentary and presidential elections were held throughout Ghana. The presidential election was won by Mr. John Dramani Mahama of the National Democratic Congress (NDC). The Agona East parliamentary election was won by Mrs. Queenstar Mame Pokuah Sawyerr of NDC. She unseated the previous Member of Parliament who belonged to the New Patriotic Party (NPP).

73. 2013: Mrs. Queensland Mame Pokuah Sawyerr, the newly-elected Member of Parliament for Agona East was appointed the Deputy Regional Minister for the Central Region by the President of the Republic of Ghana in March.

74. 2013: On 9 March a seven-member Executive Team of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana lead by the Moderator, Professor Emmanuel Martey met representatives of the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council and the Agona Nsaba Local Presbyterian Church to discuss issues dealing with the local Church and the Central Presbytery.

The meeting which started around 11am lasted for about two hours. The Moderator announced the proposed move of the Central Presbytery Office from Agona Nsaba to Cape Coast announced by the Presbyterian Church of Ghana has been suspended after a review initiated by the local Agona Nsaba Presbyterian Church and the Agona Nsaba Traditional Council. The worldwide campaign mounted by various Agona Nsaba Citizen Associations around the world against the proposed move by the Presbyterian Church of Ghana had achieved its primary objective.

During the meeting which was held at the Agona Nsaba Presbyterian Senior Secondary School, issues involving the increased resourcing of the Agona Nsaba Presbyterian Church and the Central Presbytery were also discussed. Historical and political factors such as the removal of several local councils from the Agona Area after the 1966 military coup, the relative depopulation of Agona towns due to the severe deprivation of Agona Area and its people after the 1966 coup, the efficiency of use of donated monies especially those coming from Disaporian citizens and the demographic patterns of movement of people in the Ghana and in particular the Central Region and their effects on membership of Christian Churches such as the Presbyterian Church of Ghana were also discussed.


9. THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY AT NSABA IS ILLUSTRATED WITH PICTURES FROM THE BASEL MISSIONARIES' ARCHIVES SHOWING THE DEVELOPMENT OF NSABA SALEM RESIDENTIAL WARD AND THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AND SCHOOL FACILITIES. THESE PICTURES WERE TAKEN FROM AROUND 1890 TO 1898. COPIES OF THE PICTURES WERE PURCHASED BY DR. KWABENA A. ANAMAN DURING HIS TWO-DAY RESEARCH VISIT TO BASEL MISSIONARIES' HEADQUARTERS, BASEL, SWITZERLAND IN SEPTEMBER 1994. THE PICTURES ARE ILLUSTRATED BELOW.

Picture 1: The development of the old Presbyterian Church (on the left) completed in 1894. On the right is the Presbyterian Primary School building fully completed between 1894 to 1898; this school was attended by the Coordinator of the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects starting in 1960. Further behind the Primary School is the house for the Pastor.

Picture 2: The old Church building which was completed in 1894. This building was renovated by the Presbyterian Church of Ghana in 2011.

Picture 3: Basel Missionaries Jakob Sitzler and his wife who worked at Nsaba from 1894 to 1898.

Picture 4: The King (Paramount Chief) of Agona State in front of his palace at Nsaba. Picture taken between 1894 to 1898. The King was Nana Kofi Kontoh.

Picture 5: Basel Missionaries Mr. and Mrs. Sitzler in their study room at the Basel Missionaries' house. Picture taken between 1894 to 1898.

Picture 6: Basel Missionaries' House Complex under construction at Nsaba. Picture taken between 1894 to 1898. The house complex still stands and is currently being used as the National Lay Training Centre of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana and is the Headquarters Office of the Central Regional Chapter of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana.

Picture 7: The fully completed Basel Missionaries' House Complex. Picture taken between 1894 to 1898.

Picture 8: Mrs. (Frau) Sitzler with five house servants at the Basel Missionaries' House Complex. Picture taken between 1894 to 1896. The lady seated second on the right from Mrs. Sitzler is the paternal grandmother of Dr. Kwabena A. Anaman and the lady on the far right is the maternal grandmother of Mr. Alex Hanson-Manful, Mrs. Rosina Mansa Bediako.














   10. EXHIBIT: ARCHIVAL INFORMATION INDICATING THAT TRADITIONAL HERBALIST KWAME OPPON OF AGONA NSABA TREATED BASEL MISSIONARIES AT AGONA NSABA IN THE 19TH CENTURY. THIS EVIDENCE IS CONTAINED IN THE WORK BY FRIEDRICH HERMANN FISCHER PAGES 506 AND 507. THE FIRST TWO PAGES OF THIS EXHIBIT INDICATE THE LITERATURE SOURCE.

 
11. CITED REFERENCES AND BIBILIOGRAPHIC SOURCES

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Adu-Boahen, A. (1971). Topics in West African History, Longman, London.

Afrifah, Kofi (2000). The Akyem Factor in Ghana's History 1700-1875, Ghana Universities Press, Accra.

Ali, A.Y. (1996). The Meaning of the Holy Koran, Amana Publications, Beltsville, Maryland, United States.

Anaman, Kwabena A. (1996). Report to Financial Contributors and Supporters of the Agona-Nsaba Town Development Special Project Undertaken in December 1995 and January 1996 at Agona-Nsaba, Agona District, Ghana, (14th February).

Anaman, Kwabena A. (1998). Agona-Nsaba Town Community Development Special Project Phase 2 Undertaken from January to June 1998 at Agona-Nsaba, Agona District, Ghana: Report to Financial Contributors, Supporters and Beneficiaries.

Anaman, Kwabena A. (2004). Nsaba Town Community Development Special Project Phase 3 Undertaken from 1999 to 2004 at Nsaba, Agona District, Ghana - Construction of Modern Toilet Facilities for Public Junior Secondary Schools and Activities Dealing with Construction, Renovation and Maintenance of Public School Buildings: Final Report to Financial Contributors, Supporters and Beneficiaries.

Anquandah, J.K. (2006). The Splendour of Traditional Art, http://www.ghanaculture.gov.gh/modules/mod_pdf.php?sectionid=506, accessed 27 September 2014.

Balaam, D.N. and Veseth, M. (2008). Introduction to International Political Economy Fourth Edition, Pearson and Prentice Hall, New Jersey, United States.

Balmer, William Turnbull (1926). A History of the Akan Peoples of the Gold Coast, Atlantis Press, London.

Bempah, Kofi (2010). Traditional Religion of the Akan People of Ghana, Booksurge Publishing, Charleton, South Carolina, United States, http://wwww.akantraditionalreligion.com

Buah, F.K. (1998). A History of Ghana, MacMillan Education Limited, London.

Davidson, B. (1972). History of Africa. Spring Books, London, Great Britain.

Debrunner, H.W. (1967). A History of Christianity in Ghana, Waterville Publishing House, Accra.

Douglas, A. (1977). Extra-Sensory Powers: A Century of Psychical Research, The Overlook Press, New York.

Ellis, Alfred Burdon (1894). A History of the Gold Coast of West Africa, Chapman and Hall, London.

Fischer, Friedrich Hermann (1991). Der Missionarzt Rudolf Fisch und die Anfange Medizinischer Arbeit der Basler Mission an der Goldkuste (Ghana), Verlag Murken-Altrogge, Hezogenrath, Available from Basel Mission Archives, Basel, Switzerland.

Ghana Statistical Service (2013). 2010 Population and Housing Census: District Analytical Report - Agona East District, Ghana Statistical Service, Accra.

Hayami, Y. (1989). Community, Market and State, in Maunder, A.A. and Valdes, A. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of Agricultural Economists, Buenos Aires, Argentina, (pp. 24-31), London.

Hayami, Y. (2009). Social Capital, Human Capital, and the Community Mechanism: Toward A Conceptual Framework for Economists, Journal of Development Studies, 45 (1), 96–123.

Hinnels, J.R. (editor; 1997). Zoroastrianism, The Penguin Dictionary of Religions, Second Edition, Penguin Books, London.

Historical Dictionary of Ghana refer to the Agona item.

Kea, R.A. (1982). Settlements, Trade and Polities in the Seventeenth Century Gold Coast, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, United States.

Mann, Charles Kofi (1971). Party Time with Cee Kay and Carousel Seven, Essiebons Record Company, Accra.

Orbis Publishing Limited (1996). Psychic Worlds: The World of the Unexplained, The Book Company International Pty. Limited, Sydney, Australia.

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Yale University (2018). Yale University Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2018 and Trend EPI, http://www.epi.yale.edu/epi2018/rankings, 2018, accessed on 30 May 2018.

Information about districts in Ghana
http://www.ghanadistricts.com/districts.

General information about Ghana
http://www.ghanaweb.com


13. INFORMATION ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS WEBSITE

This new website is a successor to the Nsaba Ghana Community Projects website which was housed by expage.com. The latter website was closed down in March 2007 as the expage.com system shut down. The old website was in existence for five years (2002 to 2007) and received 8,065 visits.

This website was re-developed on Tuesday 22 April 2008. It was last updated on Monday 26 November 2018.

For more information about this website, you may contact the Manager through this email addresses: kwabenaasomanin@hotmail.com; kwabenaanaman@gmail.com.

This website is being maintained as a source of research information for workers interested in the history of Agona Nsaba, Agona People, Ghana, Africa, and community development in general.

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